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61. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 21
Paulo A. E. Borges Ser Ateu Graças a Deus ou de como ser Pobre é não Haver Menos que o Infinito: A-teísmo, A-teologia e An-arquia Mística no Sermão "Beati Pauperes Spiritu..." de Mestre Eckhart
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This paper comments Eckhart’s sermon “Beati pauperes spiritu...” , trying to show how the inner sense of spiritual poverty, the first of the blessednesses, is finally to reassume the uncreated plenitude, or the Deity (Gottheit), previous to the production of God (Gott) and the world, as correlatives of the free self-creation of the subject. To want nothing, to know nothing and to own nothing, indeed to be nothing, is thus a deconstitution of the subject which frees him from himself, from God and from everything, in returning to the absolute. The mystical fruition of that absolute than assumes an a-theist, a-theological and an-archic meaning, as it suspends the divinisation of the primordial and its representation as an hegemonic and extrinsical principle. Zero degree of being, renunciation of all limitations of existence, extreme poverty is here the absolute wealth of being no more than the Infinite.
62. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 21
Adelino Braz Nietzsche et Pessoa: La Métaphore du Semblant
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O pensamento do poeta português cruza-se com o filósofo alemão sobre o tema da busca da verdade. Criticando o dualismo metafísico e a posição de uma verdade absoluta, Pessoa retoma a transmutação dos valores par a concluir uma verdade múltipla e relativa, ou seja a linguagem do mundo como metáfora. No entanto, ao contrario de Nieztsche que admite a morte de Deus par a poder reconsiderar completamente o conhecimento e o sentido da tragédia, Pessoa limita-se a reconhecer unicamente a sua ausência. A partir dessa divergência, a metáfora apresenta-se na reflexão do poeta como um fingimen to contemplativo, abdicando assim do projecto nieztscheano de instituir a metáfora como acção criativa.
63. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 21
João Maria André Uma Suprema Alegria: Escritos Sobre Espinosa
64. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 21
Renato Epifânio Repertório de Bibliografia Filosófica Portuguesa (1988-2002)
65. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 21
Boletim do Centro de Filosofia
66. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
Viriato Soromenho-Marques Abertura
67. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
Fernando Aranda Fraga La Idea de “Razón Publica” (y su Revisión) en el Último Rawls
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In 1993 John Rawls published his main and longest work since 1971, where he had published his reknowned A Theory of Justice, book that made him famous as the greatest political philosopher of the century. We are referring to Political Liberalism, a summary of his writings of the 80’s and the first half of the 90’s, where he attempts to answer the critics of his intellectual partners, communitarian philosophers. One of the key topics in this book is the issue of “public reason”, whose object is nothing else than public good, and on which the principles and proceedings of justice are to be applied. The book was so important for the political philosophy of the time that in 1997 Rawls had to go through the 1993 edition, becoming this new one the last relevant writing published before the death of the Harvard philosopher in November 2002.
68. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
Ernesto Castro Leal Nacionalism o e Federalismo, Tópicos de Pensamento Político Português No 1.° Quartel do Século XX
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This paper aims the systematisation of historical dynamics and political conceptualisations around Portuguese nationalism and federalism, between 1901 and 1926. Used by several doctrinists and political programmes as ideological references, such concepts have suffered multiple appropriations. To be stressed is the doctrinal diversity of the Portuguese nationalism, strongly influenced by an epoch determined by the emergence of European nationalisms and the struggle among hegemonic powers. Inside them, according to Fernand Braudel, «violent units» were manifest but condemned to failure, since «violence was never enough for anyone to take control over the whole European household».
69. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
Sofia Guedes Vaz The Tragedy of the Commons and Leviathan: A Small Insight into Environmental Political Philosophy
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The type of authority needed for a good environmental public policy is discussed. We looked at some authors who saw in Leviathan, a type of authority possibly compatible with a model for environmental policy and to some others who refuted it. The need for a Leviathan, what type of Leviathan and could Hobbes’s arguments be used in environmental policy is then discussed. The tragedy of the commons, a rich metaphor for environmental policy is used as the main drive. This small essay will, even though very modestly, contribute for an almost absent environmental political philosophy, where traditional concepts such as authority, sovereignty or state are being challenged and need discussion.
70. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
José Barata-Moura A Cidadania Como Cultivo
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Se développant autour du problème de la citoyenneté, l’article soutient qu’il s’agit moins d’un statut fixe que d’un processus de construction, c’est-à-dire, d’une affaire de culture. Plusieurs de ces connexions fortes entre les deux concepts sont ici présentées sous la forme d’énoncés: a) la citoyenneté doit être comprise en tant qu’œuvre de culture; b) la citoyenneté n’existe que dans un cadre de culture où elle peut s’exercer; c) les déterminations de la citoyenneté sont à son tour enrichies par les possibilités de la culture.
71. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
Raquel Kritsch Política e Jurisprudência: O Conceito de Soberania em Dois Movimentos
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Le propos de l’article c’est d’analyser la formation et l’évolution du concept de souveraineté, concernant essentiellement les siècles XII-XIV, une période au long de laquelle il est progressivement configuré. La thèse fondamentale de l’auteur consiste précisément dans l’affirmation selon laquelle les questions inhérentes à la souveraineté sont simultanément politiques et juridiques, liaison intrinsèque qui transparaît dans les deux moments essentiels de la construction du concept de souveraineté : le premier se rapportant avec la question de la distribution des juridictions strictu sensu, c’est-à-dire, avec la définition de l’entité dont la mission est de faire accomplir la loi en tant que telle; le second qui signale l’apparition d’un sens plus large du concept de juridiction - légitimité de créer, de changer et de révoquer les normes - associée à l’idée de pouvoir législatif dans une acception moderne. Cette construction en deux mouvements est analysée dans des auteurs fondamentaux de cette période depuis les canonistes du XIII siècle jusqu’à Guillaume d’Ockham, passant par Saint Thomas d'Aquin et Jean Quidort, entre autres.
72. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
Alexandre Franco de Sá Sobre a Terra e Sobre o Mar: Algumas Reflexões sobre a Criminalização da Guerra
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The present article tries to consider the present circumstances of the phenomenon of war starting from an opposition between Carl Schmitt and Michael Walzer. Starting from the essential link between jus ad bellum and jus in bello, the author tries to analyse the kind of war that arises from the crisis of jus ad bellum: a war reduced to self defence, based on enemy’s criminalization and justified as a police action with humanitarian rhetoric. Based on that analysis, he argues that the inevitable consequence of taking away the jus belli from sovereign power is the increasing of war’s intensity and violence itself.
73. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
José Gomes André James Madison e a Protecção dos Direitos Individuais: Em Torno da Criação da Carta de Direitos Federal Norte-Americana
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The purpose of this paper is to analyse the contribution of Statesman James Madison - in its theoretical and practical component - to the solution of a classical problem of Political Philosophy: how is it possible to guarantee the protection of citizens within a political project that deeply involves them? First, we will consider Madison’s theoretical contributions, examining his letters, political writings and speeches; secondly, we will analyse his participation in the discussion and framing of the American Bill of Rights (1791), there by trying to widerstand the reasons for its success and how important Madison’s procedures and observations were in accomplishing it.
74. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
Adriano Moreira O Federalista
75. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
José Alberto Loureiro dos Santos Da Natureza E Relevância do Pensamento Estratégico
76. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
Manuel J. do Carmo Ferreira As Teias que as Mulheres Tecem
77. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
Maria Luísa Ribeiro Ferreira Looking for Spinoza
78. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 11 > Issue: 22
Boletim do Centro de Filosofia
79. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 23
Marina Savi Comunità e Sentimento di Amicizia nell’Etica Kantiana
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A partir de Hegel, a filosofia moral kantiana foi interpretada em sentido solipsístico. Uma reconsideração abrangente da ética pondo em articulação um dos núcleos d a Fundamentação da metafísica dos costumes, a saber, o conceito de “reino dos fins” com a secção da Metafísica dos costumes dedicada aos “De veres de virtude em relação aos outros”, permitiu-nos reconstruir o pensamento kantiano sobre as relações interpessoais. Do confronto da noção de “reino dos fins” com as reflexões sobre a amizade emerge um modelo de relações morais fundado sobre a reciprocidade. A amizade anima as relações de troca entre os membros do “reino dos fins”, personalizando-a. Numa relação entre amigos que possua uma valência moral existe de facto um precioso equilíbrio entre amor e respeito que cria o espaço comum em que se realizam a comunicação e a partilha. O amor tem portanto a tutelá-lo as exigências do respeito. Justamente por isto, Kant coloca reservas à compaixão que, sobretudo quando se exprime em termos de simpatia empática, priva o outro da sua dignidade.
80. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 23
W. R. Daros Una Educación para un Futuro Mejor en la Concepción de Richard Rorty
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R. Rorty's Posmodern philosophy has its own bases and consequences. One of this consequences is found in the interpretation of education's fact. Truth is changed by a pragmatic way of thinking. Conscience is no more the typical center of a person. The practice way of doing is now the very important thing, without expecting any help from any transcendent Being. Education becomes a social problem and truth is a not real problem and not even a logical justification is required. The distintion between Literature and Philosophy is abolished and the idea of a general text wholly framed is arised. The desconstruction's method is then applied to the text, where the true interpretation is irrelevant.