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81. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Martin Heidegger, Markus Zisselsberger Of the Origin of the Work of Art (first elaboration)
82. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Jean-François Courtine, Christopher Cohoon Give/Take: The Hand
83. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
F. W. J. Schelling, Adam Arola, Jena Jolissaint, Peter Warneck Timaeus
84. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 12 > Issue: 2
Peter Warnek Bastard Reasoning in Schelling’s Freiheitsschrift
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The paper explores a connection between Schelling’s celebrated Freedom Essay and Plato’s Timaeus by considering the importance of Schelling’s translation of a phrase found in the Platonic dialogue in which Timaeus expresses the limits of human discourse, speaking of it as a kind of “bastard reasoning.” These limits are said to arise necessarily through the progression of the inquiry carried out by Timaeus. Schelling’s own resistance to viewing his inquiry determined by such limits and such necessity is highlighted by the fact that he curiously translates the phrase as “false imagination” or sin. The paper questions the reasons for such resistance given the striking structural similarity between the Timaeus and Schelling’s own essay. The paper concludes that Schelling’s thinking of the “unground” is comparable to the chorological interruption enacted in the Timaeus, but that Schelling does not consider how such an interruption bears upon God’s word. The paper thus points to a self-estranging necessity at the heart of all discourse and thought.
85. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Matthew S. Linck Double Vision: On the Sensible and the Intelligible
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This article argues that the distinction between the sensible and the intelligible in Plato’s dialogues (here with respect to the Republic) is not a dogmaticassertion or the foundation for a set of doctrines, but is rather the very starting point of philosophical activity. This starting point will be shown to be, in its most fundamental aspect, not something chosen by the philosopher, but rather the attribute that makes the philosopher who he is. Much of my argument will turn on a consideration of the divided line. In Part I, I situate the discussion of the divided line within both its global and immediate context in the Republic. As the divided line will serve as the focal point of my argument it is important to clarify its place in Socrates’ discussion with Glaucon and Adeimantus from the outset of my presentation. Part II consists of a brief analysis of the key passages devoted to the divided line. This analysis will culminate by highlighting the problematic nature of geometrical objects with respect to the schema of the line. I will argue that geometrical objects have no secure place on the line. This insecurity will call into question the apparent continuity between the sensible and the intelligible that the divided line suggests, and might call for a way to mediate or bridge the gap between the sensible and the intelligible. In Part III, I consider one such attempt in Proclus’s commentary on Euclid in order to show how such an attempt failson Platonic terms and thus cannot constitute the true core of Platonic philosophy. Part IV will argue that if rightly interpreted the divided line itself offers a solution to the problem and clarifies both the nature of philosophical activity and the status of the sensibility/intelligibility distinction within Platonic philosophy
86. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Chiara Bottici Mythos and Logos: A Genealogical Approach
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The paper aims to put forward a critique of the common view of the birth of philosophy as the exit from myth. To this end, it proposes a genealogy of myth whichstarts from the observation that the two terms were originally used as synonymous. By analyzing the ways in which the two terms relate to each other in the thinking of Presocratics, Plato and Aristotle, the paper argues that up to the fourth century BC no opposition between mythos and logos was stated and that not even in Aristotle is there an identification of myth with false discourse. This, in the end, is the result of the fact that their views of truth and reality enabled a plurality of programmes of truth to coexist next to one another.
87. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Carl B. Sachs Nietzsche’s Daybreak: Toward a Naturalized Theory of Autonomy
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Any interpretation of Nietzsche’s criticisms of morality must show whether or not Nietzsche is entitled both to deny free will and to be concerned with furtheringhuman freedom. Here I will show that Nietzsche is entitled to both claims if his theory of freedom is set in the context of a naturalistic drive-psychology. The drive-psychology allows Nietzsche to develop a modified but recognizable account of freedom as autonomy. I situate this development in Nietzsche’s thought through a close reading of Daybreak (Morgenröte). In conclusion I contrast Nietzsche’s naturalistic account of autonomy with the transcendental account developed by Kant.
88. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Daniel L. Tate Transforming Mimesis: Gadamer’s Retrieval of Aristotle’s Poetics
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This essay traces the trajectory of Gadamer’s retrieval of mimesis by reconstructing his interpretation of Aristotle’s Poetics. Mimesis names the transformationthat takes place when the work constitutes a structure (Gebilde) that offers a presentation (Darstellung) in which the spectator participates. The reconstructiontreats Gadamer’s interpretation of mythos, mimesis, and katharsis as he appropriates them to his understanding of the work as a “transformation into structure” which is a “transformation into the true” that effects a self-transformation in the spectator. By transforming mimesis Gadamer retrieves this ancient concept for the hermeneutic understanding of the work of art as an event of being.
89. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Jim Vernon The Moral Necessity of Moral Conflict in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit
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While not an explicit claim of Hegel’s, this paper aims to use his analysis of ‘Conscience’ in the Phenomenology of Spirit to demonstrate that the conflict betweendifferent moral judgments is morally necessary. That is, rather than being the unfortunate result of ‘hard’ cases, I argue that moral conflict is a necessary condition for the possibility of duty. Grasping the moral ground of moral conflict, I contend, allows us to understand why such conflicts arise, how and why they become entrenched into ‘moral issues’ and what our duties are in such cases. Thus, I aim to articulate both the moral necessity and dutiful resolution of seemingly intractable moral conflicts.
90. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Ryan S. Hellmers Reading in Ereignis: Schelling’s System of Freedom and the Beiträge
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A close analysis of truth and freedom in Heidegger’s Beiträge zur Philosophie is offered, demonstrating that an engagement with Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph vonSchelling is decisive in bringing Heidegger to an understanding of Dasein in terms of freedom, community, culture, and history. The controversial claim that a reconsideration of German Idealism can provide a new way of accessing Heidegger’s later work is strongly supported in this essay, demonstrating that the payoff of this approach is vast as well as highly coherent with many recent developments in Heidegger scholarship which focus on practical philosophy.
91. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Howard Ponzer Reconciliation in Hegel’s Speculative Idealism
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In the following, the author argues that Hegel’s speculative idealism attempts to reconcile the competing philosophical positions of idealism and realism.Through an examination, first, of current scholarship and, second, of Hegel’s critique of the “Ideal of Pure Reason” in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason, the author shows that one of Hegel’s main criticisms is that the exclusion of the thing-in-itself denies realism. The author argues that Hegel’s response to the problem of the thing-in-itself is to affirm realism. The author concludes by demonstrating how Hegel’s concept of Geist reconciles idealism and realism.
92. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Walter Brogan Letter from the Editor
93. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Kelly Oliver Strange Kinship: Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty on Animals
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The development of the emerging science of ecology influenced the later work of both Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Both use zoology, biology, and ecology intheir attempts to navigate between mechanism and vitalism, but their interpretations and use of the life sciences take them on divergent paths and lead them to radically different conclusions regarding the relationship between man and animal. This essay takes up the problematic of kinship with animals in Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. Beyond the texts of these two thinkers are the more general stakes of the relationships between humans and animals and the question of whether or not animals can be our kin.
94. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Jessica Wiskus The Universality of the Sensible: On Plato and the Musical Idea according to Merleau-Ponty
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In reassessing the relationship between the ideal and the sensible realms, Merleau-Ponty’s later work (Notes de cours 1958–1959 et 1960–1961 and The Visibleand the Invisible) investigates the “musical idea” of Proust. This idea resembles that of the chora in the Timaeus with respect to its institution of a productive “space” between the ideal and the sensible realms. However, because the musical idea attains its status as an idea through repeated initiation in the sensible world, it transgresses the temporal structures described in the Timaeus. Indeed, the musical idea discloses not a “beginning” of time but a poetic—creative—past.
95. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 1
Silvia Benso Aesth-ethics: Levinas, Plato, and Art
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Levinas’s most important contribution to contemporary philosophy is his continual vindication of the primacy of the ethical. For the contemporary reader, educated in the shadow of the Nietzschean thought that existence as will to power is art, this claim comes as an uneasy surprise. What is the place of the aesthetic within the preeminence of the ethical in Levinas’s philosophy? Or, more specifically, what is, for Levinas, the place of art in relation to the ethical? Through a Levinasian reading of Plato, and a Platonic reading of Levinas, the paper argues in favor of Paul Celan’s statement that there is not “any basic difference . . . between a handshake and a poem.”
96. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Sara Brill Politics and Exorbitant Platonism
97. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Pascal Massie Between Past and Future: Aristotle and the Division of Time
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Time prevents being from forming a totality. Whenever there is time fragmentation and multiplicity occur. Yet, there also ought to be continuity since it is thesame being that was, is and will be. Because of time, being must be both identical and different. This is the key problem that Aristotle attempts to resolve in his discussion of time in Book IV of the Physics. This essay considers three privileged notions: limit, number and ecstasies on which Aristotle relies at crucial moments of his inquiry and shows (1) that limit, number, and ecstasies are actually three ways of approaching the same phenomenon, and (2) how they allow Aristotle to reconcile divisibility and indivisibility.
98. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Suzanne Stern-Gillet Dual Selfhood and Self-Perfection in the Enneads
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Plotinus’s theory of dual selfhood has ethical norms built into it, all of which derive from the ontological superiority of the higher (or undescended) soul in us overthe body-soul compound. The moral life, as it is presented in the Enneads, is a life of self-perfection, devoted to the care of the higher self. Such a conception of morality is prone to strike modern readers as either ‘egoistic’ or unduly austere. If there is no doubt that Plotinus’s ethics is exceptionally austere, it will be argued below that it is not ‘egoistic.’ To that effect, the following questions will be addressed: Are the virtues, civic as well as purificatory, mere means to Plotinus’s metaphysically conceived ethical goal? To what extent must the lower self abnegate itself so as to enable the higher self to ascend to Intellect and beyond? And if self-perfection lies at the centre of the Plotinian moral life, is there any conceptual room left in it for other-regarding norms of conduct? A close reading of selected passages from Plotinus’s tractate I.2[19] On Virtues and tractate VI.8[39] On Free Will and the Will of the One will, it is claimed, bring elements of answer to these questions.
99. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Peter Warnek Plato’s Other (Socratic) Beginning
100. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 13 > Issue: 2
Dror Post Heraclitus’s Hope for the Unhoped
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The Concept “hope,” (Greek), appears in two of Heraclitus’s fragments. This essay offers an attentive reading of these fragments and examines the role of hope in Heraclitus’s thinking. The essay is divided into two parts. The first part examines the meaning of the Greek notion for hope, (Greek), by looking into archaic and classical sources, particularly the myth about the origin of hope in Hesiod’s Works and Days. Based upon the renewed understanding of the concept, the second part of the essay examines Heraclitus’s use of the concept of hope and demonstrates the central role of hope in Heraclitus’s thinking.