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81. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Alexander T. Jackson, Mathias J. Simmons, Bradley J. Brummel, Aaron C. Entringer Appropriate Training Should Turn Ethical Reasoning into Ethical Practice
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The prevalence of ethics training in organizations rose from 50% in 2003 to 76% in 2011 (Ethics Resource Center 2012). This paper reviews the current state of ethics training in organizations and proposes a new conceptual model for designing effective ethics training programs based on Rest’s (1986) model of ethical decision-making. We argue that it is not the content of ethics training that fails to produce ethical behavior; it is the method by which ethics training is delivered. Most organizations utilize training methods designed to disseminate information or facilitate ethical dilemma recognition. Few organizations utilize methods that allow for trainees to actually practice making an ethical decision. We argue that a comprehensive approach to ethics training should be used, so trainees may practice all aspects of making an ethical decision. This practice should then enhance transfer of ethics training to the job. We conclude with suggestions for how research could be conducted to empirically support these arguments and inform ethics training method choices.
82. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Walter P. Jarvis, Danielle M. Logue Cultivating Moral-Relational Judgement in Business Education: The Merits and Practicalities of Aristotle’s Phronesis
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In this paper we reflect on the question “what do we mean by teaching ‘business ethics’ at all?” In response we suggest that phronesis - a values-based disposition integrating practical and affective dimensions of practical knowledge - warrants consideration in addressing the topic of ethics but more broadly in legitimising university-based management education in the face of widespread public trust deficit in business and management education. In this paper we consider the Aristotelian origins of phronesis, including its distinctive connection to emotion and moral imagination, and apply a phronesis-based approach to postgraduate management education, providing illustrations of its practical usage. In doing so, we argue this goes beyond thinking of ‘business ethics’ as a stand-alone subject in business education, and instead provides management educators a framework within which to cultivate graduate capabilities in moral-relational judgement and a profession-like praxis. Doing so would help - post Global Financial Crisis - to ameliorate justifiable loss of public trust and confidence in university-based management qualifications.
83. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Thomas P. Corbin Jr. The Case of the Crooked Case Worker
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Ethics practice is both relative and situational. Perhaps there is an area of no greater demonstration of these realities than where an organization, be it a public governmental entity and/or a quasi-governmental entity with government contracts has the duty of care owed to a vulnerable constituency as well as to other community stakeholders. These agencies have the public trust as well as the ethical caretaking concerns to master. In the following fact scenario and discussion, one would consider a situation where the care of the vulnerable constituency is the paramount concern and the facilitation of that care is also in question. Human Resource and leadership teams need to be cognizant of not only impropriety of members within their organization but also the appearance of impropriety as well. The following case study attempts to put into perspective the need for managers and HR representatives to monitor practice and perception of ethical behavior.
84. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Shafik Bhalloo, Kathleen Burke Overworked and Underpaid: The Plight of One Hapless Paralegal
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Tracy has a new job, a stable paycheque, and a new lease on life in a very tight job market. As a new paralegal, just six months into her position at a law firm supporting two very busy personal injury lawyers, Tracy’s workload and pace demands that she regularly works after hours. Her overtime, however, does not show up on her paycheque. She knows other firms pay their employees for overtime, but in her law firm, overtime is expected and unpaid. The Employment Standards Act requires employees to be compensated for overtime hours, but making a formal complaint would notify Tracy’s employer of her complaint and may expose her to retaliatory action. Tracy wants to be fairly compensated for her work, but there may be hidden costs to exposing her firm’s practices.
85. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 13
Sonia J. Toson The Force-Fed Proposal: Exclusion of Shareholder Proposals from Corporate Proxy Materials under SEC Rule 14a-8(c)(5)
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In 2012, Peter Lovenheim invested in a promising new company, Iroquois Brands. Subsequent to investing, he learned that the company was a distributor of the French delicacy, pâté de foie gras. As an animal rights activist, Lovenheim was aware of the animal cruelty methods used to produce pâté de foie gras. In an effort to bring awareness to the issue and ideally halt the corporation’s distribution of the product, Lovenheim crafted several strategic shareholder proposals, and ultimately, in March 2015, filed a lawsuit against Iroquois. Unique in that it is written from the perspective of the Judge deciding the case, this case asks students to balance the needs of the corporation with the rights of shareholder activists. Based on a landmark court decision, the case demonstrates the complexities faced by contemporary socially responsible enterprises attempting to strike the elusive balance between ethical responsibility and the requirements of the law.
86. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
N. Craig Smith, Anne Duncan GlaxoSmithKline and Developing Country Access to Essential Medicines (A)
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The merger of GlaxoWellcome and SmithKlineBeecham in 2000 created the world’s second largest pharmaceutical company, GlaxoSmithKline. GSK also became the world’s leader in the provision of drugs to treat the three most critical diseases in the developing world: HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. In addition to merger related strategy and restructuring activities, the company finds itself having to respond to pressures to increase access to these essential medicines in developing countries, including the possibility of major reductions in price. How should GSK respond to these pressures?
87. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
N. Craig Smith, Anne Duncan GlaxoSmithKline and Access to Essential Medicines (B)
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The (B) case summarizes GSK’s response to pressures to increase access to essential medicines in developing countries and subsequent developments.
88. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Eugene Heath, Bruce Hutton, Debbie Thorne McAlister Panel: Philosophies of Ethics Education in Business Schools
89. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Cathy Driscoll, Jacqueline Finn Integrating Ethics into Business Education: Exploring Discrepancies and Variability Among Professors and Students
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In a study of the integration of ethics in an MBA program at an Atlantic Canadian University, we found evidence of discrepancies between students and professors with regards to their perception of the integration of ethics into coursework. In addition, discrepancies were found among the perceptions of some of the students taking the same course. Possible reasons for these discrepancies are explored, as well as some of the examples of marginalization of ethics and some of the barriers to teaching ethics that emerged in this study. Implications for business faculty and administration are discussed.
90. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Jim Wishloff Teaching Ethics: A Classroom Model
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An approach to ethical inquiry that overcomes the profound limitation emotivism places on honest moral discourse is developed. The method is introduced by first of all identifying the place which ethics properly assumes in a hierarchy of academic disciplines. Next, venerable traditions in normative ethics are summarized and a necessary order among them is posited. After reviewing what does not constitute sufficient warrant for our moral positions, it is proposed that the ultimate justification for our normative determinations be found in our worldviews. A classroom model is presented and its use demonstrated. The paper concludes by calling for a greater willingness on the part of all management educators to engage in the needed dialogue.
91. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Mari Kooskora, Jaan Ennulo, Anu Virovere Developing an Awareness of and Teaching Business Ethics in Emerging Societies: The Case of Estonia
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Ethics education and training are especially important in post-socialist countries where an understanding of ethical and responsible leadership is not yet fully developed. In such countries planning for the short term still dominates, and organisations focus their attention mainly on earning profit. In this article we show why the need has emerged to improve the general awareness of ethical issues in Estonia and teach ethical reasoning skills to business and government leaders. We describe the activities we have pursued at our ethics centre, officially founded at Estonian Business School at the end of 2001, and the research we have conducted over the last seven years.
92. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
John Hooker In This Issue
93. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Robert Kolb, Dan LeClair, Lou Pelton Panel: The Role of Ethics in Business Curricula
94. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 1
Anthony F. Buono Panel: Successful Programs for Teaching Business Ethics
95. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Debra R. Comer, Gina Vega An Experiential Exercise that Introduces the Concept of the Personal Ethical Threshold to Develop Moral Courage
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This paper presents an experiential exercise introducing the concept of the personal ethical threshold (PET) to help explain why moral behavior does not always follow moral intention. An individual’s PET represents the individual’s vulnerability to situational factors, i.e., how little or much it takes for members of organizations to cross their proverbial line to act in a way they deem unethical. The PET reflects the interplay among the situation, the particular ethical issue, and the individual. Exploring the PET can help account for why some people are sometimes able to withstand substantial organizational pressures to behave in congruence with their ethical intentions, whereas others crumble in the face of apparently minimal situational forces. We hope that students’ exposure to and subsequent reflection upon their PET, by means of the exercise we present, will foster the development of their moral courage.
96. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Glenn Pearce, John Jackson Unethical Marketers in the “Hot Seat”: Using Educational Drama to Facilitate Learning about Marketing Ethics
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“Hot seating” is a form of creative drama in which the participants play themselves but imagine themselves in someone else’s position, some taking the role of interrogators and others the role of persons in the “hot seat”. This paper documents the case of marketing students who dramatised an ethics enquiry supposedly held under the auspices of a professional marketing association to investigate breaches in its code of professional conduct. Interpretive research, in the form of a cartoon test, was employed to examine the contribution of the educational drama activity to student perceptions of learning within a role-playing experientially-based marketing unit at an Australian University. Findings reveal that students preferred the hot-seating exercise to conventional teaching methods in terms of enjoyment, “real-life” experience, new understandings of both marketing and ethics, and their motivation to learn more about marketing ethics implications for themselves, customers and the profession. Strategically, the convention was found to involve the students emotionally and intellectually with some intensity, while revealing that some students may be fearful of the drama or even over-stimulated by the sometimes tense and powerful environment.This pedagogical approach was also seen to be particularly suitable for instruction for the delicate, contentious and personal issues often raised by ethics.
97. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Johannes Brinkmann, Ken Peattie Exploring Business School Ethics
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There is much more written about how and why business schools could and should talk about business ethics than about how they could “walk the talk.” When ethics is discussed, it is usually in relation to the position of business ethics within the curriculum, rather than about what does and does not constitute ethical behaviour on the part of a business school and its members. This paper seeks to explore how ethics can develop beyond the curriculum, and some methods by which business schools might promote effective ethical self-development. Four basic ethical concepts are used as potential starting points for business school faculty to engage with business ethics beyond the curriculum: moral conflict, role morality, moral codes, and moral climate. Through a discussion of these, eight theses are developed for further discussion and are suggested as a framework for future comparative research about business school ethics.
98. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
John Hooker In This Issue
99. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Tim Manuel, Ather Bajwa Developing and Testing an Ethical Vignette in International Business
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The events of September 11, the recent collapse of Enron, the ethical violations of NASDAQ brokers and dealers, and numerous other recent examples emphasize the need to teach ethical decision making to our students. We have created an interactive, internationally focused discussion case designed to foster student involvement in a hypothetical situation. The vignette allows the participating students to see an ethical situation evolve according to their own decisions. Student involvement in the decision process builds emotional content designed to build student interest in the topic, thereby facilitating productive classroom discussions. The international focus of the case engenders discussions of multicultural issues and difficulties in managing a multinational entity. The vignette is suitable for an international course, a management course, or a course in business ethics.
100. Journal of Business Ethics Education: Volume > 2 > Issue: 2
Patricia Debeljuh, Angeles Destefano An Inside Look into Teaching Corporate Social Responsibility: A Practical Study with NGOs
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This study investigates the effects of making academic space for service learning that emphasizes the importance of active participation in society. We describe several projects of professional practice performed by students at our university with the objective of satisfying the needs of NGOs. The practice will allow for a meeting between academic learning of CSR and the needs of the community, articulated through voluntary practice. The final goal is to guide students through the process of facing the needs of their social context. Through an analysis of these aspects, we will demonstrate how the university can contribute to the formation of future professionals with solid social responsibility awareness.