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81. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Maria José Figueiredo Problemas com a Justiça. Uma Análise da Argumentação do Livro I da República
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Considering its structure and purpose, as well as its ending, Republic I can be taken as an elenchtic dialogue. In this article, I analyse its elenchoi, show some deficiencies in Socrates’s refutations and point to the developments Socrates's positions will have in the whole text of the Republic. I also allude, in an additional note, to the recognized inconsistencies of Socrates's definition of justice.
82. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
José Moreira da Silva Linguagem, Metalinguagem e Gramática em Ludwig Wittgenstein
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Dans cet article on étudie quelques aspects particuliers de la pensée philosophique de Ludwig Wittgenstein. Après une brève introduction, dans laquelle on expose la situation de l'actualité philosophique, on procède à une analyse du langage wittgensteinien en questionnant la possibilité de métalangages. Une telle analyse a comme objectif fonder l'existence, dans l’oeuvre du philosophe, de trois concepts distincts de grammaire: a) une grammaire du signifié décrit les règles de l'usage du signe dans ses rapports avec les moyens sémantiques de l'usage; b) une grammaire est les règles du jeu linguistique luimême; c) une grammaire est l'usage efectif de la parole.
83. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
António Pedro Mesquita Platão e Aristóteles. Duas Teses sobre a Substância e as Categorías
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In this article we try to demonstrate two theses concerning both the nature and the object of Aristotelian Metaphysics. These theses are the following: 1 - Substance has not in Aristotle a purely instrumental value: in fact it refers, by its own nature, the whole of those beings which really are, that is, to individuals', 2 -For this reason, Metaphysics, as science of ens qua ens, performs a specific and unique role within Aristotle’s thought (as prima philosophia) and in this role it cannot be replaced by any other science. We argue these theses through previous translation and commentary of Metaphysics Z1. Further discussion will then show how they both assume and implicate the fundamental difference between Plato’s and Aristotle's ontologies.
84. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Carlos João Correia Kafka e as Metamorfoses da Leí
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This essay examines the conflict of interpretations arisen by Kafka’s work, specially by his narrative «The Metamorphosis». It analyses the range and limits of the psychological, sociological, theological and existentialist interpretation of Kafka.
85. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Cristina Beckert Levinas (1906-1995): Invocação de um Percurso Filosófico
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This essay evokes the life and philosophical thought of an author who died recently: Emmanuel Levinas. It tries to show the in ternal coherence of his work and to question the link between his condition as a Jew and the role it played in the elaboration of a thought dominated by ethical concerns.
86. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Maria Luísa Ribeiro Ferreira 'Erro de Descartes' ou Erro de um Título?
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In this article we summarize the central thesis of A. Damásio in his book Descartes' Error. We appreciate the scientifical interest of this work but we criticize the way some philosophical questions are stated, namely the concept of reason and Descartes’ contribution to the mind - body problem. When Damásio accuses Descartes of being guilty for sustaining a «disimbodied mind», he forgets the works where this philosopher explores the mind-body interaction and his broad concept of thinking as including feeling and will. Therefore, we question the title of this work and the false expectations it can produce on his readers.
87. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Isabel Medina Silva A Avaliação no Ensino da Filosofía
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O presente ensaio pretende levantar algumas dificuldades na aplicação de técnicas de avaliação no âmbito do ensino da filosofia no secundário. Com efeito, o ensino da filosofía encerra diversos paradoxos, quer ao nível da sua própria ensinabilidade, quer ao nível dos modelos de aprendizagem e da respectiva avaliação. Grande parte das dificuldades sentidas pela maioria dos professores provém de duas ordens de factores: - por um lado, do sistema educativo português que utiliza instrumentos legais para institucionalizar mecanismos de avaliação tendencialmente centralizadores e com efeitos retroactivos sobre os próprios modelos de ensino--aprendizagem; - por outro lado, da abordagem didáctica curricular da própria disciplina de filosofía, a qual, pelos seus objectivos próprios e pela natureza do seu saber questionante e radicalizante, não se quer inscrita no currículo como «mais uma disciplina » entre outras. Após se enunciar sumariamente alguns dos conhecidos (e não recentes) problemas que emergem do contexto das relações institucion ais entre a docência e o poder, onde a avaliação desempenha uma função crucial, propõe-se uma análise de aspectos da prática avaliativa no ensino da filosofía, tais como: - inadequação de procedimentos e dificuldades decorrentes da aplicação de técnicas de avaliação que foram pensadas para os domínios das ciências exactas ou experimentáis, quando transpostas para a área do ensino da filosofía; - a polémica entre os modelos quantitativos e os modelos qualitativos e a necessidade de inovação em áreas onde se verifica uma notória insuficiência na investigação pedagógica; - algumas sugestões sobre critérios e elementos a ter em conta no processo de avaliação para que esta não se reduza a mera técnica classificativa. Conclui-se apontando como orientação que a avaliação em filosófía deva ser pensada integradam ente no contexto da própria aprendizagem filosófica, e nunca como um ‘corpo estranho’ a esse processo, embora reconhecendo que se torna cada vez mais difícil conciliar esse propósito com as exigências institucionais de aferir essas práticas avaliativas segundo padrões ou normas criteriais genéricas.
88. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Pedro M. S. Alves Que Verdade no Erro de Descartes?
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Dans un contrepoint polémique au livre de A. Damásio, L'Erreur de Descartes, nous soutenons: (a) que la thèse de l a «séparation» de l’âme et du corps permet, dans les écrits physiologiques de Descartes tels que le Traité de l'Homme, une réduction des fonctions végétative et sensitive aux processus mécaniques et naturels du corps humain; (b) que l'in troduction d'une âme dans le corps se justifie, chez Descartes, par l'impossibilité de rendre raison de la rationalité du comportement humain et de la conscience par les simples mécanismes physiologiques et la seule «disposition des organes». On montre, donc, que Descartes est, d'un côté, un des père s de la moderne approche neurologique qui est à l a base du livre de M. Damásio et, de l'autre, qu'il a vu d'avance une des limites d'une explication exclusivement neurologique de la complexité du comportement humain.
89. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Maria Leonor Xavier André do Prado, Horologium Fidei. Diálogo com o Infante D. Henrique
90. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Leonel Ribeiro dos Santos J. M. da Cunha Seixas, Principios Gerais de Filosofía
91. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
José Trindade Santos Maria José Figueiredo, O Peri Ideôn e a Crítica Aristotélica a Platão
92. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Colóquio Internacional Descartes, Leibniz e a Modernidade
93. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Pedro Calafate Relações entre Portugal e o Brasil no Domínio da Filosofia
94. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Adelino Cardoso Actualité de Leibniz: Les Deux Labyrintes
95. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 4 > Issue: 7
Simpósio Internacional a Génese do Idealismo Alemão
96. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Editorial
97. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
João Maria André As Artes do Corpo e o Corpo como Arte
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Dans ce texte, en partant du double sens de l’expression «arts du corps» et après un parcours bref sur la présence du corps dans la culture occidentale, on essaye de caractériser, premièrement, les arts du corps qui font du corps son objet ou instrument (génitif objectif) de travail, exposition et manipulation, tels que la chirurgie esthétique, les marques du piercing et du tatouage (elles-mêmes de double sens), le «body building», quelques excès du «body art», les divers types de prothèses mécaniques qui font du corps un cyborg et, finalement, ce qu’on peut appeler les prothèses chimiques qui modèlent le désir et le tempérament et qui sont administrés par une médicine psychiatrique au service d’un bien-être normalisé. Dans un second moment notre regard se tourne vers les arts du corps dans lesquels le corps se présente en tant que sujet de création artistique (génitif subjectif), en relevant surtout les arts de la scène et, en spécial, la danse et le théâtre: on essaye, ainsi, de montrer dans quel sens on peut parler du corps en tant que sujet, tant dans la danse classique que dans la danse contemporaine, et on traverse aussi le développement du théâtre, surtout après Artaud, en passant par Grotowski, Barbas et Peter Brook, pour souligner le passage du corps au premier plan de la scène. Nous concluons en soulignant le rapport intrinsèque entre ces arts, le corps et le mouvement, ce qui nous permet de dire que, s’ils sont sont les plus éphémères de tous les arts, c’est parce que dans ces arts tout se passe comme si on faisait l’amour avec le temps.
98. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
José M. Miranda Justo Os Faróis dos Automóveis: (Sobre Linguagem e Arte em Sentido Extra-Moral)
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«The head-lights of your car are there not to show you the way but rather to make you be seen...» The non-empirical, foundational relevance of such a proposition is used as an instructive analogon for the following discussion. It seems theoretically inconsistent to assume that we have aesthetical objects on one hand and on the other, in parallel with those objects or after them, discoursive occurrences legitimating those objects. In Order to give a brief outline of the intimate relation between aesthetical experience and human language this paper argues (1.) that language is not primarily a means of designation, expression or communication but rather an activity of organization of our experience, of production of sense, of constitutive mediation of our world or worlds, and (2.) that aesthetical objects do not cover the whole range of aesthetical relations, that subject-object aesthetical relations do not depend on inter-personal aesthetic relations and that subject-object aesthetical relations play an organizational role in several ways similar to that of language and necessarily interwoven with it.
99. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
Carlos Gonçalves A Filosofia da Arte, a Filosofia da Arte de Massas, e o Exílio da Avaliação
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The aim of this paper is to elucidate confusions that are as frequent in the common language as in philosophical writing. The first part of it examines the concept of “mass art” involved in my heading. After showing that it is art in the descriptive sense of the word, on the second part I proceed to the explanation of how the honorific use of this concept induces confusion between criticism and philosophy of art. Interested in the consequences of these confusions, I advocate that the lack of attention to mass art encourages the exile of evaluation from the philosophy of art and compromises the progress in the understanding of the problem.
100. Philosophica: International Journal for the History of Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 19/20
José Quaresma A Gravidade do Consenso sob Suspeita
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In this article we share the conviction that any aesthetic judgement is compounded of extreme spontaneity (I); communicated share (and not a presumed share) - the demands set by the Other of the communication and the conflict of two distinct claims (II); the personal synthesis between the individual spontaneity and the results of the share done with the Other of the aesthetic communication (III). We also admit that these three aesthetic occurrences are equally needed to the aesthetic communication, but we lay stress on the first occurrence - extreme spontaneity - as the “touch stone” of both aesthetic experience and judgement’s communication. What we corne to emphasize is that the occurrence “extreme spontaneity” is not just the very basis of the aesthetic experience, but as well, the “touch stone” of the aesthetic communication that never fades away of the discussion, even when the most rational arguments are present. As a mater of fact, this occurrence is there at the very first moment, persists secretly and strategically at the second one - moment of the communicated share - and reappears openly at the synthetic occurrence. We also defend that the “extreme spontaneity” is the occurrence that generates the suspicion’s exercise about the excesses of the communication’s rationality; that makes the suspicion something permanent (sometimes visible others latent); and finally, allows us to say that without its craft and the sensitive suspecting power the communication of the aesthetic judgement loses its authenticity and becomes empty in its universal claiming and tensional life.