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81. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 48
Boris Ivanovich Kudrin Ontology of Epistemology of the Technical Reality
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Technical reality is represented by the components of technetics (technique, technology, materials, products and wastes), which form the original community – cenosis – with a structure being described by a postnonclassical third scientific picture of the world.
82. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 48
С. Ф. Денисов Материальное производство и конечные цели научной деятельности
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The article reveals the results of the survey of interdependence between manufacturing process and scientific ideas. Two types of interdependence are put forward: parallelism and integration. The first regulation observed in the paper is parallelism, presented in its traditional form. It presupposes the idea of manufacturing and handicraft independence form meditative science. Thus, prescribed interaction is conventional and no reciprocal influence is noticeable between them. This state of things is typical for the Ancient World and the Middle Age periods. As a result of experimental science development, the epoch of New Age was marked by establishing a new type of parallelism, falling out of tradition. Truth was believed to be the outcome of science in this epoch. The second regulation is described as integration of science and machinery. At the first phase (preliminary integration) utility serves as the ultimate aim of the science-manufacturing correlation. At the second phase (integration itself) science performs the part of economical force and its ultimate aim changes to economical profit.
83. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 48
Dmitriy Alexeev Услуги С Добавленной Стоимостью Как Новая Техносоциальная Реальность
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The information received during work has led to set of the interesting, given reason and coherent remarks which are clearing up how cellular communication, long time existed separately from the Global Network, in a technological reality parallel to it, has turned to " the mobile Internet " on advantage, and became quintessence of human mobility as those in technological aspect. Important point of understanding of an event was the output from concrete market realities on a level of a philosophical problematics, even the instruction of such output. Here again new formats of the communications brightly designate themselves as species of authority. First of all, the added value of services, additional to usual services of communication, proves in the form of special regulation of the social space, gravitating to various forms of the continuous control, over Z. Delez, alternative to disciplinary practice and the forms described by M. Fuko. Are also distinctly enough appreciable «dromocratical» aspects of wireless communications in P. Virilo's sense. All these aspects of management and compulsion are perfectly expressed in the form of extremely concrete technology, which is far not comprehended and not understood in it’s consequences.
84. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 48
Marina Dedyulina The Computer Ethics Dilemma
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New technology develops with little attention to its impact upon human values. In particular, let us do what we can in this era of “the computer revolution” to see that computer technology advances human values. True enough, we could argue endlessly over the meanings of terms like “privacy,” “health,” “security,” “fairness,” or “ownership.” Philosophers do it all the time – and ought to. But people understand such values well enough to desire and even to treasure them. We do not need absolute clarity or unattainable unanimity before we do anything to advance them. Professional groups are both technical and moral communities because in order to be self-regulatory the members must set shared goals and specify appropriate ways to achieve them. In order to specify these appropriatestandards it is necessary to detail what types of behavior are ethically acceptable or not. The three most important functions of a code, he notes, identify different types of codes. Codes are either primarily (1) aspirational, giving ideals to strive for, (2) educational, intending to educate or socialize some constituency, or (3) regulatory, hoping to sanction violations of the standards. Most codes are intended to achieve all three aims to some degree, but a careful examination may reveal a concentration upon one of these. Advancements in computer technology over the past twenty years have created ethical dilemmas, some similar toother professions and some unique to the computer field. Because of the questions that have been raised, and in some instances sensational news accounts of computer irregularities, including fraud, there is a growing perception that self-regulation may be the only means by which the computer professional associations will prevent governments from intervening to regulate the computer profession.
85. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 48
Nadezhda Prokhorova Synthesis of Multivariate Postnonclassical Knowledge
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The program of the evolution of the base of knowledge in machines' mechanisms on the example of technical systems of arbitrary purpose and structure with the aim of formalization and structurization of knowledge for creation of new techniques of automatized projecting in suggested. The program is declared as the process of transference of the base of knowledge from its initial state into final one, at the permissible restrictions in quality and resources in real time. The program's concept is based on the introduction of N-measured structural space. Discrete coordinates of the multi-measured vector of this space are: flathierarchical sets of languages, objects, problems, estimations, resources, restrictions, types of working areas, etc. The vectors' co-ordinates define the set of the program projects. The possibility of choice of the optimal program strategies' realization is discussed. The concept can be applied to objects of arbitrary purpose.
86. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Потапов Г.Г. Украина Cумма: мифологии, теологии, аксиологии и синергетики, и проблемы парадигмы конвергенции континентальных ценностей и ценностей правовых систем ХХI века
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The author has been attempting in a new way to evaluate the sums of mythology, theology, axiology, globalization and postmodernism on a basis of a sinergetically-axiological paradigm. There is “a notion of sum” in the process of research of the topic need to understand as the sinergetically-axiological paradigm. This “notion of sum” has given us a possibility to look from above of a modern level of science and in a new way to systematically evaluate the sums of mythology, theology, axiology, globalization and postmodernism since Homo habilis to Homo postmodernist, including epochs of Homo crectus and Homo sapiens. This paradigm of values makes it possible to approach in a new way the problems such as the mythological epoch of humanity and the period oforigin and predominance of World religions, at the time when essence of the leading philosophy had been religious ideology and theological values and, starting since, Renaissance until rise of the classical science, merely at that time when the scientific philosophy had just begun to dominate in the philosophy of human thought. The sinergetically-axiological paradigm could claim to the evristical philosophical comprehension of the key problems of past, present and future.
87. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Gennady Golovnikh Apologia of Agathon: Agathological and Axiological Context
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It is possible to pick out a number of tendencies in axiology development. Among them we can see the disciplinary invasion of axiology into the sphere of agathological (agathon - greek - the Good) knowledge. The invasion tendency is connected with the definite understanding of the value nature and with the including non-value content into the axiological sphere. Value and agathon (the good) have different significance. In philosophy of values there are two axiologies: creative and noncreative. In creative axiology the value world is the world created by the free and reasonable subject. All the history of agathon (the good) studying allows for picking it (agathon) out as a subject for special research in agathology.
88. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 49
Kenul Bunyadzade The Syndrome of Imbalance or Can We Listen Our Soul
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As a human being possesses dual creation, certain reasons and conditions can oppose his inner and outside worlds. Giving preference one side to other, and to turn another into slavery enhance the syndrome of imbalance which inherent him in birth. To make harmony between them and their complementarities perfect the human being. This also emphasizes the necessity of parallel development of rational and irrational thinking and their complementarities. A human being is perfect in birth and he is the only being who is able to understand his perfection. As it is reflected in Holy Books that the material world is a form of test, and the good and the evil return us. As it is seems that this material world is only the mean of choice in spiritual way. This choice is of the man. The man canchoose light or fire. Everybody understands his inferiority in his own and to solve it differently: it might be material things, divine love or science. What is the truth? It is the soul that defines it, if we can listen to it.
89. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Naum Yaroshchuk Философские проблемы нации
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“Rethinking of philosophy to-day”, from my point of view, means new understanding of the “basic truths” of philosophy in their use in the analysis of actual social problems of the modern swiftly changing world. One of such actual problems is the problem of a nation that is the most stable social unit, representing a unity of a human and social being, and in this context a human being is understood as a national human being. Only in such a role becomes an element of a social structure of a society. It is not correct to oppose the culture, common to all humanity, and the concrete culture of an individual that is national culture. The essence of culture – the totality of spiritual values - is in its penetration from the culture common to humanity, into the national culture and inversely. There are two tendencies in the world development to-day: integration, mainly in the sphere of economics, and disintegration in national-state sphere, that not always takes place in a peaceful form. It is important to find scientifically based answers to the following questions: whether national traits of social life will always be the source of tension and conflicts or they will bring bright, original vital colors into the picture of a globalized world? In general, can explosive social elements be always formed in the socio-ethnic structure of a society? The answers to these questions are formulated in the sphere of natiology - in the interdisciplinary sphere ofscientific knowledge about a nation, that realizes an important function of natiological education and upbringing.
90. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Marina Solodkaya A Time as the Basis of the New Paradigm of Responsibility
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The author argues that time is the main element of responsibility. The subject, the authority and the object of responsibility are defined by time. Time is the methodological basis for distinction of historically developed kinds of responsibility: legal and ethical one. In essence, legal responsibility is retrospective one (responsibility «for the past»). Legal responsibility has localized and discrete time-character. Expansion of legal civil-law responsibility is essentially connected with changes in point of time of responsibility. Ethical responsibility of the subject assumes nonlocalized and continuous time of responsibility. The central status of time creates a new paradigm of responsibility, which the author understands as existential. This paradigm is based on the recognition of the ability toimpose responsibility «for the future» even in the present.
91. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
V.N. Shevchenko Социальная философия и философия истории: две философских дисциплины или две стороны единого философского учения об обществе?
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At present, as the paper states, social philosophy and philosophy of history – are generally considered to be independent domains. This is evidenced by the fact that each of the above‐named domains has to be discussed in a separate congress section, the practice which was common for previous congresses as well. It is argued in the paper, that social philosophy and philosophy of history are the two most important aspects of the integral philosophical study of society. It is impossible to say which aspect is dominating. The report contains a number of arguments to support this point of view. Possible reasons for such a “division of labor” in European philosophical thought and its consequences are exposed. The question arises: why are social philosophers incline to discuss a correlation between social philosophy and theoretical sociology and don’t like to discuss a correlation between social philosophy and philosophy of history? And why are philosophers of history so reluctant to discuss ontological issues of society?
92. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Evgenia M. Nikolaeva The Principle of Unlinearity in the Research of Social Formation of Personality
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The problem of person’s social formation becomes especialy actual in all its aspects during the periods of social historical transformations. The guiding lines of individual’s development accepted by society (socialization norms) are either lacking or being overthrown. Such situation demands from the researchers to switch their attention from the mechanisms of sociality reproduction to the mechanisms responsible for the sociality formation. The last ones become the main subject of the self-organization theory (synergetics). According to it, socialization can be represented as the self-organizing system-process. The attempt to use the principle of unlinearity in the research of social formation of personality, is undertaken in the present article.
93. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Андрей Королев Переосмысливая представления о философском камне
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After gold standard terminated in 1971, a new situation developed in which Earth ceased to be a means in the process of monetary exchange. Power shifted to People of Air, to those who produce no goods or services, but are busy selling and buying money and securities. The dying out of European nations, that characteristically dates back to that very year of 1971, raises a question of creating a new means of exchange. But now it will not be a part of parts of Earth (like gold, silver, other metals), but the whole Earth, Earth as a planet. A dramatically new level of perception and manipulation of Earth’s gravitational, electromagnetic and other fields thus achieved, would allow anyone to obtain the philosopher’s stone and join the circle of People of Earth. It will be philosopher’s stone that willhenceforth define the level of mastering Earth fields, without resort to technological means. The power will then begin to shift from People of Air to People of Earth.
94. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
В.В. Колотуша Power Enforcement as Social Phenomenon
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The events of the beginning of the millennium have made it necessary to try to find a new philosophical sense of power enforcement as a social phenomenon. Conceptualization of the phenomenon involves its all-round consideration both as activity itself and social practice as its variety. The role of power enforcement in the life of the society, its social determinants, and its correlation with culture and state should also become a part of thorough comprehension. Power enforcement as a variety of social practice is on the one hand aimed at forcible acquisition of products, territories, but on the other hand it is counteraction to it. Power enforcement, due to constant shortage of resources for subsistence, has always played a very important role in the course of historical development. It can be violent or nonviolent. Violent variety of power enforcement is the one, which purposes are parasitical and the means are illegal. Power enforcement has always been a corporate part of life of the human society; therefore it is not going to disappear forever. To neglect this fact means to have an inexcusable illusion. Under conditions of globalization, increasing of violent threats of unmilitary nature and in the first place the threat of terrorism is a peculiarity of the present day power enforcement. At the same time the threat of full-scale wars doesn’t seem to weaken but to some extent it is growing. The mission of philosophers is tounderstand these threats and to seek the ways to prevent them.
95. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 50
Agdas Burganov Reconsidering the Philosophy of Social Justice
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There is no fairness in the world. Inequality can be observed in all spheres of human activities and in all parts of the world. This leads to the world-wide gross injustice. The main dilemma of survival is: either social fairness to people or the end of human history. The patience of people in hardship is exhausted. Social and interstate contradictions are being sharpened, and they add fuel to the flames of international tension. The world is on its way to endless terror. Even “Golden Billion” is not quiet any longer. Fierce confrontation between the rich and the poor, the outlaws and the citizens takes nowadays place in Europe and the United States. As we can see the struggle will stop at nothing. It will spread with its unprecedented bitterness and moral bifurcation in people, the alarming symptoms of which are already being manifested. The mankind is moving towards the “all-in war’ state, the state of being at war on everything and everyone. Equality – it is Chimera. But what should we do, how should we act in order not to make equality a Pandora’s box, fueling global tension and giving a birth to revolutions and wars? What is there to be done with man’s strive for being at least not worse than the others? The solution of this problem is to open equal chances to all members of human society, to give them real and objective opportunities which form the basis of social justice. Sooner or later the mankind will come to cooperation via solving global environmental problems, and leveling all nations’ welfare on the basis of world wealth co-ownership.
96. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Backsansky Oleg E. Rethinking Epistemology, Philosophy of Science and Technology: Knowledge and Culture
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Modern cognitive approach represents the interdisciplinary branch of scientific reflection uniting researchers of knowledge, studying laws of purchase, transformation, representation, storages and reproduction of the information. People react to own experience, instead of "objective" reality. Cognitive map of the world according to which we operate, our feelings, belief and life experience create. We have no direct access to a "objective" reality, therefore our cognitive map is for us this unique "real" reality. Cognitive science widely uses methodology of synergetic approach successfully describing processes of self‐organizing. On the other hand, the synergetic addresses to modelling cognitive systems both the separate individual and collective cognitive processes. Therefore there are bases tospeak about formation cognitive‐synergetic scientific program ‐ the approach which is under construction on principles of modern nonlinear thinking.
97. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
V. A. Okladnoy The Creative and Constructive Nature of Cognition
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Rational reconstructions of cognition, outgoing from the results of cognitive activity, often introduce incorrect or imaginary cognitive procedures. Cognition needs to be examined as the open creative process directed to the unknown future. In the process of cognition a theoretical language, perceptive structures, methods of empiric researches and ontological phenomena are mutually constructed. The contents of the results of cognition are encoded in the language of theory and becomes objective in its ontology. It is the same information represented in different forms. The classic theory of truth is faithful, always used for the estimation of our assertations, but the terms of its use are constructed in the process of cognition. The only mode to show that the theory is not truthful and the ontological phenomena are not real is to construct a successful alternative theory.
98. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Evgeny Krotkov Диагностика Как Вид Эпистемической Практики
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Diagnostics is becoming one of the most important kinds of epistemic practice: accurate and timely diagnosis is necessary not only for ill people, but for economic, social and political systems and institutions, culture, science, technology, and ecosystems. The analysis of researches into diversity of diagnostics used in various branches enabled the author to develop the outline of the philosophical theory of diagnostics, to identify its subject matter and problems, to name the categories and principles of the epistemological and methodological analysis of diagnostics activities, and to characterize its essential components. Diagnostics is defined as the process of developing cognitive perception of the object being investigated (sought for) and identifying it with existing knowledge of the object (orobjects of the same type). Diagnostics has the following constituents: a) determining something known and constant in the unknown and inconstant; b) identifying the single and occurent with the “ready-made” classification schemes and explanatory patterns, i.e. identifying it with the common and consistent; associating new facts with the known, common and consistent by applying well-tried methods, algorithms and technologies. The author identifies two levels of diagnostics: factual (empirical) and discursive. Discourse is defined as a finite course of reasoning based on a common concept. Reasoning is defined as the search for an answer to a cognitively significant question through drawing a conclusion (making a deduction). The author also analyses the role of argumentative, interpretative (explanatory), qualifying and predictive reasoning in the diagnostic thinking. The specific character of the diagnostic search is determined by an all-important role played in its process by a priori normative (paradigmatic) knowledge, as well as by its orientation to the cognition of the single and individual. The article alsotouches upon the issue of relationship between diagnostics and research investigation. This enables the author to specify the nature of scientific work and identify the correlation of existing knowledge and innovations.
99. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Niginahon Shermuhamedova Научный поиск как творческий процесс
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Complexity of studying of scientific creativity, in particular, scientific search consists that is the multiplane phenomenon comprising the whole complex of different changes, such as social, psychological, subject, information, logic, methodological philosophical and other aspects. And only consideration of all these aspects in their unity and interaction opens an opportunity of construction of the complete theory of scientific creativity (scientific search), explanations of laws and mechanisms of reception of new scientific results, fulfillment of opening. For this reason research of last time are guided by the complex analysis of creative activity, on use of methods and means of various disciplines more and more. In scientific search the main thing – to direct efforts to the decision of the putquestions, to concentrate on the studied phenomena for a long time. Even then, when scientific search leads to new results, the researcher far not always gives the exhaustive formulations, allowing considering the given question solved. It is not always capable to formulate and those conclusions which the analyzed material allows it to make. The researcher during search should reconsider constantly former guesses, ideas and hypotheses, differently its search will not lead to success. In scientific search of success or failure always depend on set of factors. These factors can change both a course and a direction of the search. Alongside with it scientific search is impossible without persevering aspiration, without creative boldness of the researcher. Search is fruitful and effective only when the researcher arms with progressive ideas of time, possesses independence and impartiality of thinking, a wide general outlook and feeling new when search reflects the certain expectations of a society.
100. Proceedings of the XXII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 53
Alexander Krushanov Ситуации предстандарта в историческом становлении естественных наук
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Historical becoming and evolution of scientific knowledge are connected with the passing through very specific and important stages – stages of terminological chaos and its eliminating (like it was in the times of K. Linnaeus in botany and A. Lavoisier in chemistry). This specific and important experience is not represented in the famous models of cognitive dynamics (Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, Styopin etc.). Situations of such a kind are fixed in the report as “prestandard situations”. It means: 1. it’s time when some of the terms or symbols express simultaneously different meanings 2. there are some parallel terms or symbols with essentially the same meaning 3. scientific community (or some scholar) has to leave usual operating with the scientific knowledge and to work out system of terminological or symbolic priorities (standards for the field). This model includes also description of main stages of the pre-standard situation maturing.