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81. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 14
Herlinde Studer Conditions of Knowledge
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Since Edmund L. Gettier's famous paper a series of counterexamples has been raised against the traditional analysis of knowledge in terms of justified true belief. Some of these (not only Gettier-type) counterexamples can be ruled out by adding a fourth condition to the traditional account which demands a causal connection between the belief of a person and the fact the person believes. This causal connection is specified in a particular way so that counterexamples put forward against causal accounts of knowledge are likewise eliminated.
82. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 14
George Englebretsen A Journey to Eden: Geach on Aristotle
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Peter Geach has charged Aristotle with the sin of corrupting logic by initiating a process which led to the view that a sentence consists logically of just two names. This charge can only result from a clearly mistaken view of Aristotle's theory of logical syntax. Aristotle, unlike Geach, was careful to distinguish subjects from subject-terms and predicates from predicate-terms. He took both subjects and predicates as syntactical complexes. Geach, following Frege, holds a very different theory of logical syntax which takes predicates, but not subjects, as syntactically complex.
83. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 14
Kurt Salamun Marxist Humanism and Praxis
84. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 14
Wilhelm Vossenkuhl Free Agency: A Non-Reductionist Causal Account
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Free agency can be explained causally if the causal approach does not imply reductionism. A non-reductionist account of action is possible along the lines of Davidsonian 'anomalous monism'. Mental events, i.e. prepositional attitudes activated by indexical beliefs, are the causes of actions. Free agency presupposes a special type of causes to be analysed as rational causes allowing human agents to be self-determinant, autonomous agents in Kantian terms. An action is free if it has rational causes not to be ruled out by natural causes. With causes of actions being activated prepositional attitudes their rationality is analysed in terms of the coherence of prepositional attitudes. Principles of rational choice are not the basic ingredients of free i.e. rational action but have to conform to the prepositional attitudes of the human agent.
85. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 14
Barry Smith Outline of a Nominalist Theory of Propositions: An Essay in the Theory of Meaning and in the Philosophy of Logic
86. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 14
Peter M. Simons Unsaturatedness
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Frege's obscure key concept of the unsaturatedness of functions is clarified with the help of the concepts of dependent and independent parts and foundation relations used by Husserl in describing the ontology of complex wholes. Sentential unity in Frege, Husserl and Wittgenstein: all have a similar explanation. As applied to linguistic expressions, the terms 'unsaturated' and 'incomplete' are ambiguous: they may mean the ontological property of Unselbständigkeit, inability to exist alone, or the property of being what categorial grammar calls a functor. Separation of these two senses resolves a dispute between Dummett and Geach on the nature of predicates.
87. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Wolfgang L. Gombocz Geschichte der mittelalterlichen Philosophie im Christlichen Abendlande: Aus dem Nachlaß herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Klaus Hedwig
88. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Hide Ishiguro Logik und Semiotik in der Philosophie von Leibniz
89. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Joachim Buhl Zur Intensionalität prädikatenlogischer Sprachen erster Stufe
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Eine prädikatenlogische Sprache erster Stufe sowie eine modallogische Sprache werden aufgebaut und miteinander verglichen. Für jede dieser Sprachen werden drei verschiedene modelltheoretische Interpretationsmethoden vorgeführt. Es wird gezeigt, daß, wenn man die prädikatenlogischen Sprachen als Versuche ansieht, Teile der Umgangssprache zu formalisieren, sie alle wesentlichen Eigenschaften intensionaler Sprachen aufweisen
90. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Bertil Rolf Körner on Vagueness and Applied Mathematics
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Körner's notion of vagueness, its relation to ostension and the alledged gulf between logic and experience are examined. Ostension is seen not to cause vagueness ~ there are precise concepts of mathematics which can be ostensively mtroduced. A distinction is drawn between classical logic not applymg to the vague world and not applymg to the vague language. The claims about logic and the vague world are unverifiable claims about existence. Körner's attempt to elimmate the seeming incompatibility between vague language and logic leads to a Protagorean relativism which is rejected. It is denied that the incompatibility between vagueness and classical logic causes a gulf between two sublanguages; mstead, ordinary language is held to contam both and so to be inconsistent.
91. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Andreas Bartels The Structure of Time
92. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Rudolf Haller The Transformation of Positivism: Alexius Meinong and European Thought, 1880-1920
93. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Keith Lehrer Handbuch wissenschaftstheoretischer Begriffe, 3 Bde.
94. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Werner Sauer Leibniz's Metaphysics of Nature: A Group of Essays
95. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Gerhard Schurz Time and Cause: Essays Presented to Richard Taylor
96. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Wolfgang L. Gombocz Reforging the Great Chain of Being: Studies in the History of Modal Theories
97. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Wolfgang Grassl Rationality in Science: Studies in the Foundations of Science and Ethics
98. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Stephan Körner Reply to Dr. Rolf
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The Reply to Dr. Rolfs essay makes the following main points: (1) The logic of inexactness has the same syntax as Kleene's three-valued logic. Its semantics is different in that the third truth-value can by choice be correctly turned into either truth or falsehood. (2) The definition of resemblance classes includes, but is not exhausted by, ostensive rules. (3) The application of classical mathematics to sense-experience consists in the limited identification of non-isomorphic structures. (4) There are exact perceptual and vague mathematical concepts. (5) The distinction between my categorial framework, a categorial framework and the true categorial framework, if any, is neither relativistic nor absolutistic.
99. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
Joseph Tolliver Basing Beliefs on Reasons
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I propose to analyze the concept of basing beliefs on reasons. The concept is an important one in understanamg the so-called "inferential" or "indirect" knowledge. After briefly stating the causal analyses of this concept given by D.M. Armstrong and Marshall Swain I will present two cases which show these analyses to be too strong and too weak. Finally, I will propose an analysis which avoids these twin difficulties.
100. Grazer Philosophische Studien: Volume > 15
John Wettersten Towards a Rational Anthropology