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81. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 7
Author Biographies
82. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 7
Esther Wolfe, Elizabeth Grosz Bodies of Philosophy: An Interview with Elizabeth Grosz
83. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Camilla Cannon The Contemporary American Child as a Docile Consumptive Body
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In this paper, I argue that the contemporary relationship between children and advertising can be seen as illustrative of Foucault’s theory of disciplinary power and docile body production. I contend that, within the context of a consumption-based economy, an individual’s prime utility is her rate of personal consumption. Therefore, the subjection of children to ubiquitous advertising can be seen as the discipline through which the utility of personal consumption is maximized.
84. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Katie Lane Kirkland Concreteness and Contraception: Beauvoir’s Second Sex and the Affordable Care Act
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In this paper, I analyze Simone de Beauvoir’s goals for women expressed in The Second Sex and compare these goals to the opportunities created by the Affordable Care Act’s contraceptive mandate. Though the contraceptive mandate advances Beauvoir’s goal of concrete equality by supporting economic independence and recognizing women’s sexual freedom, there are social and political limitations to these advancements.
85. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Ian Ferguson Nietzsche and the Prince
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The main character of Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s novel The Idiot is a devout Orthodox Christian named Prince Myshkin. Friedrich Nietzsche, who is intensely critical of Christianity, and Myshkin share the same views on shame and pity despite their apparent ideological differences. They condemn the damaging effects of shame and praise the redeeming quality of pity for people who are put to shame. Nietzsche and Myshkin criticize the moral aspect of Christianity, but Nietzsche generalizes it for all of Christianity and Myshkin limits it to the Catholic Church. In the end, they both advocate a philosophy of love for humanity.
86. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Brandon Ferrick Defending a Benefit-Based Approach to Compensation for Necessary Losses
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This paper examines cases when compensation follows from necessary actions that cause harm. I posit that we can determine when compensation is due in instances of necessity by referring to the distribution of benefits and losses that result from the action.
87. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Eric Badovinatz There Are No Genuine Disagreements about Funniness
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I argue that there are no genuine disagreements about whether something is funny. My argument rests largely on the premise that something is funny only if someone experiences it as funny. The bulk of this paper is spent supporting this premise, primarily through an analysis of the meaning of “funniness.” The rest of the paper is spent demonstrating how my conclusion follows from this premise.
88. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Anson Tullis Duality Unresolved and Darwinian Dilemmas
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By using Sharon Street’s Darwinian Dilemma, Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek and Peter Singer attempt to show that Sidgwick’s duality of practical reason, whereby an agent has equal reason to act in their own interests or act impartially for the benefit of all, is not actually a duality; rather, reasons for action are solely impartial due to the unreliability of intuitions favoring self-interested behavior. I argue that Lazari-Radek and Singer fail to accomplish their goal. I argue that Singer has previously provided an account of impartiality that makes it just as unreliable on the same grounds as self-interested tendencies. Sidgwick’s duality remains unresolved.
89. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Richard R. Eva Multilateral Retributivism: Justifying Change
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In this paper I argue for a theory of punishment I call Multilateral Retributivism. Typically retributive notions of justice are unilateral: focused on one person’s desert. I argue that our notions of desert are multilateral: multiple people are owed when a moral crime is committed. I argue that the purpose of punishment is communication with the end-goal of reconciling the offender to society. This leads me to conclude that the death penalty and life without parole are unjustified because they necessarily cut communication short.
90. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Hannah Bahnmiller The Intersections between Self-Deception and Inconsistency: An Examination of Bad Faith and Cognitive Dissonance Hannah Bahnmiller
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The relationship between the concepts of bad faith, coined by Jean-Paul Sartre, and cognitive dissonance, developed by Leon Festinger, is often misunderstood. Frequently, the terms are over-generalized and equivocated as synonymous ideas. This paper attempts to clarify the intricacies of these two concepts, outlining their similarities and differences.
91. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Charles Mills, Arthur Soto Rethinking Philosophy and Race: An Interview With Charles Mills
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The Stance team spoke with Charles Mills, noted philosopher and John Evans Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy at Northwestern University whose work focuses on issues of social class, gender, and race, on December 1, 2014. Dr. Mills reviewed Stance’s transcription of the interview and made slight corrections for grammar, style, and reduction of repetition. He also inserted a sentence or two to add clarity. We hope readers find the result illuminating.
92. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 8
Authors
93. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 12
Cameron Yetman Colour and the Argument from Illusion
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For A. J. Ayer, the occurrence of delusions confutes the notion that we perceive the world directly. He argues instead that perceptions are caused by immaterial “sense data” which somehow represent the properties of material things to us in our experiences. J. L. Austin systematically rejects Ayer’s claims, arguing that the occurrence of delusions does not preclude the possibility of direct perception, and that, indeed, our normal perception is direct. I challenge both philosophers’ ideas by examining how they deal with the phenomenon of colour.
94. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 12
Rosanna Sparacino The Ethical Implications of the Intentional Fallacy: How We Ought to Address the Art of Immoral Artists
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I argue that biographical information is akin to other non-aesthetic, social, historical, or political information. As such, artist’s biographies are always relevant and important when interpreting art. While the meaning and value of a piece of art is not determined by any single piece of contextual information, neither is its meaning and value ever entirely separated from context. In some cases, however, a piece of art that is technically magnificent may be experienced as repugnant when the artist has committed egregious acts.
95. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 12
Noah McKay Problems with the “Problems” with Psychophysical Causation
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In this essay, I defend a mind-body dualism, according to which human minds are immaterial substances that exercise non-redundant causal powers over bodies, against the notorious problem of psychophysical causation. I explicate and reply to three formulations of the problem: (i) the claim that, on dualism, psychophysical causation is inconsistent with physical causal closure, (ii) the claim that psychophysical causation on the dualist view is intolerably mysterious, and (iii) Jaegwon Kim’s claim that dualism fails to account for causal pairings. Ultimately, I conclude that these objections fail and that dualist interactionism is no more problematic or mysterious than physical causation.
96. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 12
Adam Khayat Mary Does Not Learn Anything New: Applying Kim’s Critique of Mental Causation to the Knowledge Argument and the Problem of Consciousness
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Within the discourse surrounding mind-body interaction, mental causation is intimately associated with non-reductive physicalism. However, such a theory holds two opposing views: that all causal properties and relations can be explicated by physics and that special sciences have an explanatory role. Jaegwon Kim attempts to deconstruct this problematic contradiction by arguing that it is untenable for non-reductive physicalists to explain human behavior by appeal to mental properties. In combination, Kim’s critique of mental causation and the phenomenal concept strategy serves as an effectual response to the anti-physicalist stance enclosed within the Knowledge Argument and the Zombie Thought Experiment.
97. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 12
Holly Cooper The Fires of Change: Kirk, Popper, and the Heraclitean Debate
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In this paper, I explore a prominent question of Hericlitean scholarship: how is change possible? Karl Popper and G. S. Kirk tackle this same question. Kirk asserts that Heraclitus believed that change is present on a macrocosmic level and that all change is regulated by the cosmic principle logos. Popper, on the other hand, claims Heraclitus believed that change is microcosmic and rejected that all change is regulated by logos. I argue for a combination of aspects from each of their claims and conclude that change is present both microcosmically and macrocosmically and that all change is governed by logos.
98. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 12
Matteo Casarosa A Fractal Universe and the Identity of Indescernibles
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The principle of Identity of Indiscernibles has been challenged with various thought experiments involving symmetric universes. In this paper, I describe a fractal universe and argue that, while it is not a symmetric universe in the classical sense, under the assumption of a relational theory of space it nonetheless contains a set of objects indiscernible by pure properties alone. I then argue that the argument against the principle from this new thought experiment resists better than those from classical symmetric universes three main objections put forth against this kind of arguments.
99. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 12
John Cooney Freeing Mysticism: Epistemic Standards in Theory and Practice
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With the growth of epistemology, an important debate in philosophy of religion has arisen: can mystical encounters—purported feelings of intense unity with the divine—serve as epistemic warrants? In this paper, I examine two of the most prominent and promising standards by which to determine the veridicality of such encounters—those of William Alston and Richard Swinburne—and demonstrate their respective strengths and shortcomings. Considering these shortcomings, I compose and defend my own set of criteria to use in evaluating the veridicality of putative mystical experiences which draws upon the subject’s religious tradition, rationality, and affectivity.
100. Stance: An International Undergraduate Philosophy Journal: Volume > 12
J. Wolfe Harris Domestic Imperialism: The Reversal of Fanon
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Frantz Fanon’s works have been invaluable in the analysis of colonies and the colonized subject’s mentality therein, but an analysis of the colonial power itself has been largely left to the wayside. The aim of this paper is to explicate a key element of Fanon’s theoretical framework, the metropolis/periphery dichotomy, then, using the writings of Huey P. Newton and Stokely Carmichael, among others, show its reversal within the colonial power. I will analyze this reversal in three ways: first, the reversal of the relationship between, and the roles of, the metropolis and periphery; second, the role of police and the differences between the colonial police and the police within the colonial power; and third, the modified role of prisons within the colonial power.