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81. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 54
Владимир Иванович Бурлаков Философско-антропологические основания риска в пространстве правопорядка
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This paper is an attempt to identify the foundations and sources of risk environment, describe the ontological, anthropological sources of risk in the sphere of Law. Definitions of forms of risk that occur in sphere of Law are introduced. On the basis of the conflict between order and self-organization (the ontological conflict) an attempt is made to suggest a brief philosophical definition of risk environment. The anthropological source of risk is described, the incompleteness of human nature, and the desire for recognition. The ontological system echoes the axiological characterization of Erich Fromm’s and V. B. Ustyantsev’s mode of existence.
82. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 55
Irina Ivanova Неклассичность логики и неклассичность науки
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Logic as a phenomenon of science has been historically denoted by the set of close synonym terms – “canon”, “dialectics”, “epagoge”, “maieutics”, “synagoge”, “analytics”, “epilogizmos”, “organon”, “logic” – while the word “logic” is only a homonym. Since, in relation to logic itself, the logical ideal of unambiguity in natural language is not achievable, the limitations of logical science, imposed by it primarily upon itself, are always important. Especially this concerns the use of the terms “formal logic” and “non-classical logic”, as well a broad understanding of logic that makes it equivalent to (and not only) thinking as such. The paradigm of modern post-nonclassical rationality suggests that logic should be considered responsible for the appearance of non-classical thinking and non-classical science. Thus, rationality even in science, acquires an almost exclusively praxeological nuance. As a consequence, the basic trends of modern science – interdisciplinarity, synergy, syncretism – and the reduction of rationality to pragmatics lead to the abandonment of the undelying principles of rational thinking, the essence of which lies in differentiating analytics, and sometimes – even to the abandonment of thinking as such. This gives rise to a paradoxical situation: the rationality of science, in fact, becomes the negation of the rationalist approach and the rationalistic thinking, which initially determined the nature of scientific knowledge, not only ceases to be the main value of science, but is no more included among its essential features.
83. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 55
Larisa Demina Теоретические проблемы изучения аргументации и стратегии развития общества
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In standard logical definition of the proof the concept of truth is used. To prove some thesis – means logically to bring it out of other true judgments. But there are the statements which haven’t been connected with truth, not having a truth conditional assessment: these are questions, requests, councils, promises, estimates, etc. It is obvious that, operating with them, we need also to be logical and evidential. Thus, there is a question of expansion of concept of the proof, that is of creation of wider model of the argument. Logical modeling of the argument generates a set of its models in which it is reproduced by means of logical systems: formal and semi-formal. Problem of logical modeling is creation of formally correct system of dependences between arguments and the thesis. It is also necessary to consider and reproduce its pragmatical aspects in model and argument rules: orientation to the addressee, providing acceptability and clearness of arguments and conclusion procedure. But there is also one more moment – social – which we also have to consider at a choice of model of the argument. The changes happening in society, find close connection of language with forms of life, human existence. This circumstance caused increasing interest to the argument, as forms of human rationality, the critical thinking capable to an independent and free reasoning, a way of research of mistakes and delusions, illusions and conscious manipulations, justification of own views, the points of view and ability to convince of them others.
84. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 56
Василий Перминов Системный подход к решению проблемы Вигнера
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Theories which born during interior development of mathematics later obtain empirical interpretation and become a part of applied science. The reasons for this are still not clear, although many mathematicians and philosophers (E. Wigner, M. Steiner, R. Hersh and others) put forward their hypotheses. We believe that solution the problem should involve investigation of mathematics as a sort of evolving system. Two systems may be subordinated; that is, if the first one is a primary and fundamental one, then the other one is secondary and adjusted to the first. We propose that substantial sciences are primary and formal sciences are secondary. There are reasons to think that mathematics in its interior development has intention to physics. Secondary system may have changes of two sorts: those which are requested by the primary system, and those which are free of the requests of the primary system. Analyzing biological systems we see that interior changes of the system, which are not caused by its current needs, are determined by its further purposes. Each living system carries a “model of future” in itself, and it tends to this future by its free changes. We think that the living systems development logic may be transferred to conceptual systems, also. If we consider mathematics as a conceptual system which is secondary in relation to physics, then we receive a natural explanation of the possibility of mathematical anticipation.
85. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 56
Игорь Леопольдович Алексеев Математизация научного знания и ее проблематика
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Применение математики в механике, астрономии, физике, биологии, социологии, психологии и в других областях научного знания, способствовало проникновению в научный аппарат указанных областей знания таких понятий, как число, функция, производная, дифференциал, интеграл, структура, система и т.д.. Математизация процесса научного знания становится определяющим фактором того, что теория той или иной сферы научной сферы может называться научной. В процессе математизации научного знания должны соблюдаться необходимые условия, как в содержательной теории, так и в выбранных математических методах. Они отражают реальность и тем придавать высокую точность предсказанию и описанию процессов.
86. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 56
Анатолий В. Чусов Математика как объективация: развивающаяся онтология предмета
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The features of development of the subject-matter of mathematics can be viewed from the standpoint of the study of mathematics as objectification in Marx’s sense – as a relatively independently self-reproduced sphere of activity. For an explication of this development it is necessary to define concepts of “world”, “object”, “subject-matter”, “subject-actor”, “reality”, “structure”, “model”, “objectification”, “ontology”. In the process of objectification of the domain of objects of mathematics takes place a transformation of forms of existence and creation of new ontologies, with respect to new types of realities. The development of mathematics as a sphere of human activity necessarily contains subjectification (reproduction of a type of subject-actor as necessary substructure of every social objectification). The results of mathematical activity are fixed as objects and reproduced in the intersubjective, objectivized domain of mathematics, because the subject-actor itself is practically incorporated into the structure of the world as an object. Mathematics as practically realizable objectification of knowledge is modelling of ontologies. The immediate subject-matter of mathematics is the (realized in representation) manifold of abstract structures of subject-actor, whereas the mediated object of mathematics is the manifold of object structures of the world.
87. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 57
Vladimir Iakovlev Сознание как метафизическая проблема современной физики
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In this paper the modern scientific cognitive programs are analyzed. The article discusses the possibility of building an information and synergetic model of mind. The author introduces a principle of ontological reality of information – primary information in relation to material and energetic (or physical) reality and reality of meanings (or ideal reality). The author suggests a new approach to understanding an anthropic principle and interpretation of a philosophical category “mind-consciousness” as a concept of information reality theory. The consciousness is a fractal of an objective information reality with the certain relationships of cause and effect (so-called information, or mental causality). Physics and metaphysics synthesis is possible at the approach to mind as to certain level of the information reality including a phenomenon of a life. The principle of an ontological reality of the information – primacy of the information in relation to a reality substance-power (physical) and realities semantic (ideal) is essential. On the basis of this principle construction of new model of consciousness, using a mathematical apparatus of theoretical physics (G. Everett, R. Penrouz, V. L. Ginzburg, M. B. Mensky) looks very possible.
88. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 58
Вячеслав Александрович Ильичёв Глобальные вызовы и доктрина градоустройства
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There are major global challenges: the technogenic pollution of the globe, the climate change, the rising of the sea level, the decrease of resources, primarily oil, and others. The rapidity of the subsequent negative changes requires fast, cardinal and principally innovative approaches to the formation of urban life. Most modern cities have become major pollutants of the biosphere and, thereby, entail degradation of population. This paper examines the principles and methodology of urban transformation in biosphere, which are compatible to human development. We suggest a hierarchy of methodological principles of urban management, which embraces all issues from the interaction with the biosphere up to the creation of conditions for favorable, comfortable and safe life.
89. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 58
Elena Zolotykh Уникальные объекты геологического знания в постнеклассической парадигме
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Geological knowledge is needed for a comprehensive approach in describing their objects. Ancient Greek philosophers noticed that layers contain shells, similar to the ones that are stay at the shore of the sea, but raised high in the mountains. And it is required a comprehensive response, which couldn’t do one branch of scientific knowledge, to explain this phenomenon. So the logic of Geology may not be reflected logic of physics or chemistry. Therefore the methodology of geological knowledge of nature should be reflected with holistic approach. Heterogeneity of the matter of the Universe, which date back to the fundamental (Planck’s) length and have the dimension lf *ene. So heterogeneity of the Earth is stacked in sizes from 10-8 cm (the radius of the Atom) to 1010-1011 cm (dimensions of the planet). And the geological objects are characterized by the data of different levels of organization of a substance. As a result any geological object should be described in its integrity and uniqueness due to the holistic nature of their. Geology is a complex of Sciences and has its own methodology of interdisciplinary approach. Therefore, with full right, we can mention the geological knowledge of science, based on the post-non-classical paradigm.
90. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 58
Anna Y. Guseva Modern Forms of Philosophy of Nature: Environmental Glamour vs. Aesthetics of Philosophy of Science
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Экологические проблемы неоднозначно оцениваются в философии – от признания их экзистенциальной значимости до иронического отношения. Амбивалентность оценок заложена в имманентной противоречивости гуманитарного экологического проекта (термин А. М. Пятигорского). Неклассическая философия природы в современной культуре также проявляется в формах, крайне противоположных. С одной стороны, это гламурные спекуляции на экологических темах, характерные для массовой культуры и создающие поле экологического гламура. С другой стороны – философия естественнонаучного исследованSя, сохраняющая фундаментальные мистико-эстетические смыслы постижения гармонии природы через проживание единства с нею.
91. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 6
Pavel Chelyshev The social philosophy of St. Symeon the New Theologian
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In the XIX–XXth centuries materialist philosophy made a seri-ous attempt to explain the process of social development proceeding from the economic factor. But in practice, this doctrine revealed its historical ground-lessness making researchers go from the analysis of economic realities over to spiritual life of man. Creative works of Byzantine ascetic-mystic, poet and phi-losopher St. Symeon the New Theologian (949–1022), developing St. Augus-tine’s idea about coexistence of «the city of God» and «the city of man» in so-ciety set an example for this. St. Symeon speaks about Church and anti-church, which in everyday life oppose each other. Their opposition is of spiritual and moral character that defines all other differences, including economic and political ones. The philosopher considers the Church to be the community of peo-ple united in Christ by means of church sacraments, faith, hope and love into a single big organism. Anti-church, the community of people under tyranny of devil, is opposed to «the city of God». Devil draws people into peculiar net of social relations, «the body of Satan», through moral depravity. But neither technological progress nor social humanism and liberalism weaken the power of «the Prince of this world» over people, because their slavery is based on immorality and spiritual impoverishment. Opposition of these communities defines the character of historical process that will be completed in the last act of spiritual conflict, when Church wins a victory. Without this eschatological perspective history ceases to be history and loses its inner metaphysical sense.
92. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 61
Тамара Леонидовна Белкина Основные принципы в эволюции христианства
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This paper examines the history of Christianity from the stand-point of the development of the concept of universal evolutionism. It is shown that the emergence of new trends, organizations and communities in Christianity takes place in accordance with the basic concepts and laws of synergy: divergence, convergence, bifurcation, and self-development.
93. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 61
Сергей Сергеевич Чистяков Ценностно-смысловая сфера представителей православной веры
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This paper is a survey of research in psychology and religious studies, which examine how religion (through human’s involvement in religious practice) determines the value-semantic sphere of the believer. Our study concerns the differences in value-semantic orientations of the represen-tatives of the Orthodox faith and the secular people. The hypothesis under examination is that there are differences in the value-semantic orientations of the representatives of the Orthodox and the secular people.
94. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 61
Андрей Мишучков Образовательный дискурс межрелигиозного диалога
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The specificity of interreligious dialogue through the phenomenon of the intersection of different discourses in education - scientific, philosophical, educational, religious (Christian and Muslim), revealed the role of interreligious dialogue in the development of a tolerant individual student and in the formation of an interfaith social stability.
95. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 62
Cергей Глебович Афанасьев Метафилософские парадоксы эмпатии в творчестве и физико-математическая теория Всего
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Представление об алгоритмах нового направления в философии – «философии масштабов», позволяющих усилить фундаментальные физико-математические модели реальности, включающие теорию струн, голографическую теорию, теорию суперполя, теорию слабого взаимодействия, гипотезу Пуанкаре-Перельмана.
96. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 62
Stanislav Bondarenko Неосциентистская модель доказательства
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Problem of scientific proof is very important philosophical problem of science. This problem studied great ancient Greek philosophers Pythagoras, Thales, Anaximander, Democritus, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Anaxagoras, Pyrronas, Agrippas and others. Science has not the truth without the proof and the proof without the truth. Common feature of all scientific method is the proof of its results. Methodology of science is developing and looking for reliable model of a proof. Any expedient of scientific proof has the single beginning, final number of middle parts and the single ending. Strictness of the proof depends on correcting the distribution of the functions between parts of the proof. Functions for beginning stage: purposeful, meaning, analytic, regulative, controllable, organized, selective, stimulant, valued, directive, determining, base, explanatory, prognostic. Main functions for middle parts: the join of the beginning and ending stage in the completeness, the exception of contradictions and chances, the explications of necessary arguments and the strict algorithm. A number of middle parts are logical optimum. Functions for ending stage: crowned, resulting, productive, pragmatic, conventional, synthesis, modal, interpretative. A development of methodology has not finish. Methodological ideals improve continually.
97. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 62
Elena Agoshkova An Epistemological Corpus of Science
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Having accepted the heritage of the Greek “phisikoi”, science is increasing knowledge faster than the consequences of its application are recognized. This gives the demand of the full conditions unit, when the theoretical knowledge can receive the interpretation and can be realized in artifacts. The problem of blind-spots search in methodology became the task of the second part of XX century. As a result appeared the deepened classical principles of cognition and the new ones were designed. Uniting of all the basis in joint epistemological corpus is the most important task of the modern philosophy of science. In the paper the fundamental principles, which constitute the basis of epistemological corpus, are observed: 1.The abstraction principle in depth understanding of the theory as a structure of abstractions. 2. Leibniz-Heidegger principle of sufficient reason in terms of its connection to the systems paradigm. 3. The systems principle in the meaning of the system as a universal link form of the things being reasoned and the reasons, as a universal form of object representation. 4. The intervality principle, which determines the theory limits through the interval characteristics based on the concept of “abstraction interval”. The logical connection of the above mentioned principles, which form the type of productive thinking both on the way to knowledge and on the life way, is established.
98. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 62
Владимир Анатольевич Окладной Конструктивность критики в процессе формирования научной теории
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A rather negative role is usually ascribed to criticism during the phase of formation of a scientific theory, i.e. criticism is viewed as contributing to the elimination of mistakes and illusions in the proposed knowledge. Historical analysis of scientific theories shows that any theory arises as a result of destructive and constructive transformations of the preceding knowledge. Criticism is a necessary component of this process which has positive impact, alongside with eventual negative ones. It challenges the existing knowledge and contributes to the statement and justification of new ideas, and affirms the estimation of resolution of a problem situation.
99. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 62
Roman Kljujkov Истинность математики и других наук
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В вопросах истинности математики и других наук нет консенсуса. А проблема давно имеет однозначное решение. Платон предложил «поход за Истиной» – диалектику с чётким алгоритмом: обобщить реалии идеей, и не одной; обобщить идеи одним идеалом (войти в идеальный мир); связать идеи закономерностями идеала в математическую модель; сравнить результаты моделирования с реалиями (вернуться в реальный мир). Главное в диалектике Платона – её обязательная «закольцованность», «сплетение» начала (в реальном мире) и конца (в идеальном мире) любого размышления для доказательства его истинности. Аристотель упростил алгоритм диалектики до двух шагов: задать заранее «истинные» аксиомы; выстроить формальной логикой «идеализированные» объекты. Так пришли к проблеме истинности. Предложенная авторами Идеальная математика Платона строится без аксиом многоступенным сложением единиц вплоть до достижения на её 20й ступени Мирового Разума. От первозданной единицы прямыми операциями до прямых идеалов, а от них обратными операциями вновь к первозданной единице – вот «кольцо» диалектики, гарант истинности. Выполнение обратных операций над первозданной единицей и за ней формирует обратные идеалы с их особыми свойствами. И без каких-либо аксиом и волюнтаризма их создателей! Теперь любой, даже не математик, выстроив математическую модель по закономерностям нужного идеала, может сверить результаты моделирования с реалиями для установления Истины. Пользуйтесь реальными идеалами, и Ваше Познание станет истинным! Платон гарантирует!
100. Proceedings of the XXIII World Congress of Philosophy: Volume > 63
Павел Титов Философско-антропологические основания спорта
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Статья посвящена философско-антропологическим основаниям спорта. В статье рассматривается влияние физической культуры на процесс развития личности. Анализируется современные концепции, определяющие философское понимание физической культуры.