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1. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Bruno N. D’Andrea 'In tuam invocationem rumpebam nodos linguae meae' (conf. 1, 14): Un poco más que aprender a hablar
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The first book of Augustine’s Confessions has attracted the attention of many Scholars for a long time, especially the interest of those who study the Philosophy of Language. The article presents some considerations about the acquisition of language as explained by Augustine in the first Book of the Confessions, trying to verify if the only purpose of the Bishop of Hippo when narrating this event, typical of pueritia, was to communicate to the reader when and how he learned to speak. The article tries to point out that Augustine probably wanted to describe the moment when he was able for the first time to address God. In this sense, Augustine’s intention would be to point that the process of learning to speak is a necessary step to be able to call on God, to praise him and to pray, all topics which are important within Augustine’s Confessions.
2. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Enrique A. Eguiarte 'Familia Christi': La eclesiología en el libro XII del 'Contra Faustum' de Agustín de Hipona
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The first part of this article, presents a bibliographic review of the works that in the last hundred years have addressed in a direct and central way Augustine’s Contra Faustum, making a more extensive description of the most important of them. Later the ecclesiological ideas of Book XII of Augustine’s Contra Faustum are approached, to discuss, Saint Augustine’s exegetical justification to make an spiritual interpretation of the Old Testament. Subsequently, the central ecclesiological figure of Book XII of Augustine’s Contra Faustum is addressed, namely, Noah’s ark, highlighting the symbolic meaning of the pure and impure animals, of the square and imperishable timbers with which the ark was built, of the ark’s side door and its relationship with the side of Christ, of the three levels of Noah’s ark and its ecclesial interpretation, of the greasy glue that joined the timbers as a symbol of unity and peace within the Church. The importance of the expression familia Christi as a name for the Church is highlighted, making an exposition of other augustinan works in which this expression is used. The theme of the Church as the body of Christ and the prosopological exegesis in Augustine’s Book XII of Contra Faustum is also addressed, as well as Saint Augustine’s interpretation of some characters of the Old Testament as figures of the Chruch in book XII of Contra Faustum. The article addresses indirectly to other contemporary Works of Contra Faustum, such as De Baptismo, Ad catholicos fratres and some sermons and enarrationes in Psalmos.
3. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Joost van Neer Agustín habla sobre Alipio y Nebridio: Una nueva interpretación de 'conf.' VI, 7, 11–10, 17
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In conf. VI, the younger Augustine – as described by his older self – is well on his way to conversion, even though he is not yet aware of this himself. His spell as a Manichaean had not given him what he had hoped to find, and he feared that the Catholics would prove equally disappointing. Confronted with this situation, he decided to consult his friends. After an evocation of the influence of Ambrose (conf. VI,1,1–6,10), to which he proved susceptible, and before dealing with the problems to which the resulting choice gave rise (conf. VI, 11,18–16,26): to continue to work or not, to marry or not, Augustine describes his encounters with Alypius and Nebridius in conf. VI, 7,11–10,17. In this section, which is very carefully composed with regard not only to form (structure), but also, and primarily, to content (argument), he summons up the impasse in which he finds himself, and describes it with the aid of two images: that of illness, and that of danger at sea. The argument that he develops is that of a crisis: when a person is ill, it sometimes happens that the patient’s condition must first deteriorate before it improves, just as someone in danger at sea must sometimes face even greater peril before he is able to escape. This is what Augustine describes in conf. VI, 7,11–10,17, and this ensures that conf. VI is not a book in which he comes to a standstill, but one in which a therapeutic delay is created that gives him the strength and courage to accept humility instead of pride, and to persevere on his journey towards conversion, described in conf. VIII. This article analyses and interprets the strategy that Augustine employs to achieve this.
4. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Enrique A. Eguiarte San Agustín y las migraciones
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The article presents, in the first part, some socio-political phenomena from Saint Augustine’s time, which caused migrations, to discuss which was the reaction of the Bishop of Hippo to these events. The topic of migrations and refugees are dealt taking as point of departure the Favencio’s dossier (epp. 113-116), as well as the case of Fascio, as it is described in Saint Augustine’s ep. 268. As an example of economic migrants, the case of the family of Antonino of Fusala is analyzed, as described in ep. 20*. Starting from the migratory movements of Saint Augustine’s time, as well as the decline of the great institutions and the internal corruption of the Roman Empire itself, the article presents Saint Augustine’s spiritual idea of peregrinus and peregrinatio, highlighting the characteristics of this essential augustinian spiritual anthropological condition, making a diachronic research in the Works of the Bishop of Hippo to identify the presence and meaning of the word peregrinus. Finally, the article presents some practical conclusions to face the reality of migration in our days, taking inspiration from the ideas and the life of Saint Augustine.
5. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Pablo Irízar ¿La gracia del mérito o el mérito de la gracia? Retórica de la imagen y ambigüedad en los 'sermones' de Agustín
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The interplay between grace and merit is a recurrent Augustinian theme that is often discussed in polemical or theoretical works. Only recently has scholarly attention turned to the study of grace and merit in Augustine’s pastoral praxis. As part of this ongoing effort, the present paper offers an analysis of Augustine’s rhetoric of the image in the sermons, with special attention to the effects that the preacher/hearer dialectic produces in the social ‘moral imagination’. It is argued that Augustine’s dialectic preaching on the interplay between grace and freedom results in ambiguity concerning the sphere and boundaries of moral action in the hearer’s ‘moral imagination’. The implication on the social imagination, it is concluded, is a constant fluidity in the foreground of moral agency which either empowers or constraints the boundaries of moral action to the extent that graceand/or merit are emphasized.
6. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Kauko Raikas Las dimensiones del 'Iudex' en el pensamiento y en la actividad episcopal de Agustín: Historia legal y examen del pensamiento teológico y de la práctica episcopal de Agustín
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The article addresses two specific areas on the topic of the iudex in Augustine, namely: his thought and his episcopal activity. First, the article deals with the roots of the concept of iudex in the Greek and Latin legal tradition. Later the idea of iudex is approached within the New Testament, particularly in the Pauline writings. Next, the theological and eschatological dimension of iudex in Saint Augustine is presented, highlighting the common use that the Bishop of Hippo makes of the term iudex, underlining words such as Iudicium, or legal situations such as the iudex qui litem suam fecit, or the decision of the iudex, considered from a theological and legal point of view. In this theological dimension, the aspect of God as universal and cosmological iudex is not excluded. Subsequently, the Donatist dispute is analyzed from a legal perspective, highlighting the ecclesiastical law of the state, discussing the epp. 133, 151 and 134, stressing in the latter the legal value of the word necessitas. The importance of the episcopal intercessio is also underlined, analyzing epp. 152 and 153, as well as the terms of reus, supplicium and supplicatio, within the framework of the Pelagian polemic. The article also considers the issue of compelle intrare, in epp. 93, 173, as well as in the s. 112. The correspondence of Saint Augustine with Boniface and Dulcitius (ep. 185, De correctione donatistarum), ep. 204 is analyzed in this same context, as well as some texts from c. Gaud. The dimension of the iudex in the Pelagian controversy is also addressed, discussing particularly texts from Gest. Pel. and c. Iul. imp., highlighting in this last work the legal vocabulary, particularly the words that refer to the iudex. The epìscopalis Audientia is also addressed, presenting the imperial laws that framed it, both those of Constantine, as well as those of Honorius and Arcadius, to later stress the actions that Saint Augustine performed as a judge. As an example of the performance of Saint Augustine as judge, ep. 7 * is discussed, highlighting the actions of the Bishop of Hippo as a judge in matters related to property, as well as Saint Augustine’s knowledge of the legal terms and procedures, presenting the example of ep. 8*, and his technical use of terms such as actio in rem, uindicatio, causa, among others. Finally, ep. 24* is discussed, where the knowledge that Saint Augustine had of the ius uetus and of the ius nouum is revealed.
7. Augustinus: Volume > 65 > Issue: 258/259
Virgilio Pacioni Reflexiones sobre la paz en el libro XIX del 'De ciuitate Dei' de san Agustín: Suposiciones antropológicas e implicaciones políticas
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The article focuses on Book XIX of Saint Augustine’s De ciuitate Dei, and states that peace is not a simple moral call, but a primary tendency of human nature. It briefly reviews the influence of Varro’s anthropological doctrine in S. Augustine’s De ciuitate Dei, highlighting the prima naturae, particularly the appetitus actionis whose finis would be precisely the pax. It is also pointed out that a complete peace cannot be achieved in earthly life, linking the concept of peace with that of ordo. The polysemic character of peace is also highlighted. It also presents that despite of the conflict that exists between the ciuitas terrena and the ciuitas Dei in the time of history, there can be a dialogue and collaboration between them to seek the common interest of social peace. In a second part, it presents the relationship between the ciuitas Dei and the laws of the earthly states, distinguishing the religious and the earthly realms, illustrating this distinction with the position of Saint Augustine in the conflict with the Donatists and the Imperial Laws. Finally, a reflection on the positive law and the eternal law is presented.
8. Augustinus: Volume > 66 > Issue: 260/261
Enrique A. Eguiarte John J. Oldfield (1933-2021): In Pace
9. Augustinus: Volume > 66 > Issue: 260/261
Giuseppe Caruso Agustín y la Biblia griega en las 'Enarrationes in Psalmos'
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The article presents a summary of the ideas of different scholars concerning the real knowledge that Saint Augustine had of the Greek Language, to point out that the competence of Saint Augustine was increasing over the years. It also addresses the relationship between Saint Augustine and Saint Jerome regarding the translations of the Bible, and the value that Saint Augustine attributed to the LXX text. Subsequently, some examples taken from the 'enarrationes in Psalmos' help to stress the work of the augustinian emendatio of the Latin text, taking as point of departure the Greek text, as well as the use the Greek text in Augustine’s own textual interpretation of the psalms.
10. Augustinus: Volume > 66 > Issue: 260/261
Bruno N. D’Andrea 'In domo disciplinae': una relectura integral del 'De disciplina christiana' de Agustín de Hipona
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The article offers a comprehensive reading of Augustine’s 'De disciplina christiana'. After an introduction, the article makes a review of the studies on the 'De disciplina christiana'. Afterwards, the article presents a rhetorical analysis of the Work, stressing particularly the inuentio and the dispositio. In a third part, the article presents a careful examination of the contents of 'De disciplina christiana'. Finally, the article presents a comprehensive reading of 'De disciplina christiana', letting aside ethical or moral aspects, and mainly highlighting its ecclesiological elements in relationship to other works of Augustine, both earlier and contemporary to the 'De disciplina christiana'. The article finally offers some conclusions, stressing the possibilities of research on Augustine’s 'De disciplina christiana'.
11. Augustinus: Volume > 66 > Issue: 260/261
Enrique A. Eguiarte, Mauricio Saavedra 'Ecclesia, sponsa Christi': La eclesiología en el libro XV del 'Contra Faustum' de Agustín de Hipona: Un diálogo con la Iglesia
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In this article, Book XV of 'Contra Faustum' is approached to present the various ecclesiological ideas of Faustus and Saint Augustine, behind which there are two different hypotexts of the Book of Revelation. Faustus starts from the text of Rev 21:9, which presents the Church as sponsa and uxor, that is to say of an ecclesiology that has as point of departure a consummated eschatology which is on the way to perfection. Saint Augustine starts from the text of Rev 21:2 and 22:17, where the Church is presented as sponsa, with an ecclesiology of an eschatology not yet consummated, of the 'schon jetz aber noch nicht', where the Church lives in the hope of becoming the uxor Christi in the kingdom of heaven, when the time of the nuptiae arrives. On the other hand, the fact that Saint Augustine within the Contra Faustum never calls the group of Manicheans with the word ecclesia, but only with terms such as societas or congregatio, is underlined. The article alludes to the Christological insights of Book XV of 'Contra Faustum'. The other allusions to the Church as sponsa and uxor Christi in Book XXII of 'Contra Faustum' are also studied, in order to point out again the augustinian ecclesiological idea of an eschatology not yet consummated, and the fact that the Church is also, according to Saint Augustine, the Sister of Christ.
12. Augustinus: Volume > 66 > Issue: 260/261
Pablo Irizar La imagen de Dios como mito del origen: Un ensayo crítico de la investigación actual sobre la interpretación de Agustín del texto de Gn 1, 26 (387-400)
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This essay offers a critical survey of recent research into Augustine’s interpretation of Gn 1.26. The first part contextualizes the discussion within the broader landscape of world creation narratives and origin myths. Against this background, the second part analyzes recent learned discussion on Augustine’s (anti-Manichean) interpretation of Gn 1.26 for the period 387-400. By way of preface, the study offers a concise state of the art on the study of Gn 1.26 in the work of Augustine. The survey suggests the image of God functions as an origin myth during the period in question. The conclusion suggests exploring the neglected communal embedding of Augustine’s interpretation of Gn 1:26 as a fruitful venue for future research.
13. Augustinus: Volume > 66 > Issue: 260/261
Kolawole Chabi Espiritualidad eucarística en los Sermones de Pascua de san Agustín
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This article studies Augustine’s Eucharistic Spirituality as it emerges from primarily from his preaching, in his catechesis during the Easter Season. It investigates how the bishop of Hippo explains the transformation that makes bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ to the neophytes. It further considers the spiritual disposition necessary for the reception of the sacrament and its effects in the life of those who worthily share in the Sacred Banquet. Finally, the article explores the link Augustine establishes between the Eucharist and the Church to demonstrate the importance of Unity among those who approach the altar of the Lord.
14. Augustinus: Volume > 66 > Issue: 260/261
Paola Marone La metáfora de la 'ecclesia mater' en la literatura antidonatista
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The modern scholars have studied the maternity of the Church independently from the anti-Donatist literature. But a careful study of the anti-Donatist documents reveals many interesting elements. According to Optatus and Augustine the notion of mother was abscribed to all believers, because the body of Christ was formed of all those the Church bore as children through the baptism. According to both African bishops also the donatists gave a valid baptism, but only Augustine demonstrated how the salvation could be found outside of the viscera Ecclesiae. Then this article deals with the image of the Ecclesia mater as illustrated in the Adversus Donatistas of Optatus published in answer to the donatist bishop Parmenianus and in all that Augustine penned against the schismatics (Tractatus, Sermones, Epistulae). By doing so, it presents a picture of the African theology of the fourth century.
15. Augustinus: Volume > 66 > Issue: 260/261
Joost Van Neer La construcción de la fe en Agustín. Los dos modelos de discurso en el 'De catechizandis rudibus' de Agustín
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Augustine’s 'De catechizandis rudibus' consists of two sections: a theoretical section and a practical section. In the practical section the guidelines given in the theoretical section are illustrated by means of two model speeches, a longer one and a shorter one. It is commonly thought that the shorter speech is an abbreviated version or a summary of the longer speech. In this article I aim to show that this is not the case. Although a study of the structure of the speeches shows that both are set up the same way in accordance with the guidelines given, the tenor of the speeches is markedly different. Listening to the shorter speech does not impart the same information as listening to the longer speech.
16. Augustinus: Volume > 66 > Issue: 260/261
Marius A. Van Willigen El 'De paradiso' de Ambrosio: una fuente de inspiración para Agustín de Hipona
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The theological influence of Ambrose of Milan on Augustine is often underestimated. Some of this influence is demonstrated in this short case-study bymeans of a rather direct question: Did Augustine use Ambrose’s 'De paradiso' in 'De peccato originali'?
17. Augustinus: Volume > 64 > Issue: 252/253
Kimberly F. Baker Basilio y Agustín: Predicando sobre el cuidado de los pobres
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In their preaching on care for the poor, Basil and Augustine call for a transformation of one’s relationships. While the Roman patronage system rested on relationships of privilege and dependency, Basil and Augustine cultivate a different type of relationship between the giver and receiver of charity, a relationship based not on status and need but on a shared life and identity. For Basil, that relationship is rooted in the common humanity of all people, regardless of economic or social status. Giving is natural in Basil’s worldview because humanity shares in a common human nature and thus holds all goods in common. Those who fail to share with others risk cutting themselves off from their human nature. Basil’s call to care for the poor is a call to recognize that to be human is to share in what is κοινός, held in common. And for Augustine, the relationship of giver and receiver is grounded in Christ. In loving others, Christians come to discover Christ not only present in them, by virtue of their baptism, but also present in those they serve, wherever there is human need, as promised in Matthew 25. Augustine draws the attention of Christians to those in need, including those outside the usual ties of kinship and citizenship, and even church membership, and teaches them to see in the poor, people of dignity, defined not by dependency but by Christ’s loving solidarity. In laying claim to a common bond between giver and receiver, Basil and Augustine offer a counter-cultural social vision in which giver and receiver are defined not by power or need, but by mutuality and love.
18. Augustinus: Volume > 64 > Issue: 252/253
Andrea Bizzozero Beati mundicordes (Mt 5, 8). Conciencia, conocimiento y Visio Dei en Agustín antes del 411
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This article examines the link between the purity of the heart, conscience, knowledge and uisio dei. In Mt. 5:8 the vision and knowledge of God derive from a particular situation of the human heart. The vision-heart pair invites one to reflect on the anthropological structure and the conditions of possibility of the process of knowledge. The main questions here would be: How can one know God? Which faculties does one need in order to know Him? Which are the roles of the mind, the heart and the will in this knowledge? Why Augustine uses Mt. 5:8 to speak about the knowledge of God? At the same time, the expression beati mundicordes invites one to reflect on the qualities of the human condition in order to see-know God. In other words: Which features must the heart have in order to see God? If, on the one hand, it is necessary to know the starting point of this knowledge, on the other hand, it is important to show why it is in human nature to want to see God. This article will analyze the occurrences of the quotation of Mt. 5:8 in Augustine’s works before 411 in order to understand the meaning of the expression beati mundicordes and the conditions of possibility of the uisio dei. This study will investigate the Mt. 5:8 references particularly in De fide et symbolo, De sermone domini in monte, Contra Adimantum, De diuersis quaestionibus octoginta tribus, Contra epistulam Manichaei, De agone, Contra Faustum, Contra Felicem, Sancta uirginitate, ep. 92, ep. 130 and Sermo 88.
19. Augustinus: Volume > 64 > Issue: 252/253
Carles Buenacasa ¿Por qué «suicidas» en lugar de «mártires»?: Agustín y la persecución de los donatistas
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Catholic and Donatist sources demonstrate the importance that Donatism attached to the veneration of martyrs, whose acts were read during the feasts dedicated to them. This cult was one of the uestigia ecclesiae that linked Catholicism and Donatism. Therefore, it was important for Catholics to prove that not all those who were said to have died in the name of Christ should be considered martyrs. Augustine’s literary activity displayed a plethora of arguments seeking to show Donatists that these dotes ecclesiae did not really benefit them: martyres non facit poena, sed causa (c. Cresc. 3, 47, 51). At the same time, he strove to invalidate the justification of martyrdom that Donatists used to take from the Book of the Maccabees (Razias’ episode). According to Augustine, the tombs of Donatist martyrs came to be considered special pilgrimage sites due to the miracles and apparitions that were said to take place there. Such pilgrimages were an important source of income for the Donatist Church, generated by accommodations, religious souvenirs, food, and clothing of the pilgrims. These incomes were vital for the survival of the Donatist Church, since, unlike the Catholic Church, it could not count on imperial patronage. If the Donatists were deprived of private patronage they would end up in serious financial trouble. This article aims to analyze the Catholic/Donatist debates around the concept of martyrdom as well as the economical background underlying the efforts made by Catholics to present Donatist martyrs as mere suicides.
20. Augustinus: Volume > 64 > Issue: 252/253
Gaetano Colantuono Quid faciunt hirci in grege Dei? Parenética, polémica e historia social en el s. 47 de Agustín
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The article deals with s. 47, stressing the lexical, linguistic, rhetoric, symbolic, argumentative aspects, related to three main topics: 1) The exegetical and controversial elements of the symbolic value of goats (hirci); (2) the analysis of the vocabulary and of the polemical antidonatist motives in the homily; (3) the legal influence (also at the lexical level) as part of the controversial christian homiletics in post-Theodosian age.