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1. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Graham Parkes Zhuangzi and Nietzsche on the Human and Nature
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In the context of an unprecedented level of human harm to the natural world on a global scale, this essay aims to rehabilitate the category of the natural by drawing on the philosophies of the classical Daoist Zhuangzi and Friedrich Nietzsche. It considers the benefits of their undermining of anthropocentrism, their appreciation of natural limitations, their checking of human projections onto nature, and their recommendations concerning following the ways of nature while at the same time promoting human culture. The essay concludes with a few examples of how these ideas apply to some current environmental issues.
2. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Eleanor D. Helms Axel Goodbody and Kate Rigby, editors. Ecocritical Theory: New European Approaches
3. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Meilin Chinn Sensing the Wind: The Timely Music of Nature’s Memory
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According to the Zhuangzi, listening to the music of nature draws the self into the silence required to experience things in their self-arising spontaneity. How does this happen? This essay answers by way of the Yue Ji (Record of Music), where it is said that great music embodies the timeliness of nature. Using both texts, I develop timeliness as the opportune moment, temporal natality, and nature’s memory. Listening to the timely music of nature is shown to be an act of ecological perception that, by releasing time in favor of timeliness, reveals our aesthetic accordance with nature’s own becoming.
4. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Theresa Morris William Edelglass, James Hatley, and Christian Diehm, editors. Facing Nature: Levinas and Environmental Thought
5. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Lucy Schultz Creative Climate: Expressive Media in the Aesthetics of Watsuji, Nishida, and Merleau-Ponty
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In different ways, Watsuji, Nishida, and Merleau-Ponty describe a self that extends beyond the skin through a sort of dialectic of internal/external space of perception and action, which has implications for understanding the relationship between art and nature in artistic creation. Through an exposition of Watsuji’s conception of human being in relation to a climatic milieu, Nishida’s theory of the expressive body as the site of the world’s own self-transformations, and certain claims made by Merleau-Ponty in his essays on painting, this article provides a way of understanding how material media may become expressive when they are taken up by artists.
6. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Jason M. Wirth Dōgen and the Unknown Knowns: The Practice of the Wild after the End of Nature
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Thinkers like Slavoj Žižek and Tim Morton have heralded the end of our ideological constructions of nature, warning that popular “ecology” or the “natural” is just the latest opiate of the masses. Attempting to think what I call Nature after Nature, I turn to the Kamakura period Zen master Dōgen Eihei (1200–1253) to explore the possibilities of thinking Nature in its non-ideological self-presentation or what Dōgen called “mountains and rivers (sansui).” I bring Dōgen into dialogue with his great champion, the American poet Gary Snyder (who understands the process of sansui as “the wild”), as well as with thinkers as diverse as Schelling, Kundera, Žižek, Agamben, and Muir. Beyond Nature being any one thing, what Badiou derides as the “cosmological one,” I argue for the reawakening and sobering up to multiple Nature, beyond its appearance as an object to a discerning subject, as the bioregions which give us our interdependent and dynamic being.
7. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Brian Schroeder Editorial Preface
8. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
David E. Storey Donald S. Maier. What’s So Good About Biodiversity? A Call for Better Reasoning about Nature’s Value
9. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Hwa Yol Jung A Prolegomenon to Transversal Geophilosophy
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This essay proposes the idea of transversal geophilosophy as ultima philosophia to save the earth. Geophilosophy is that philosophical discipline which embraces all matters of the earth as a whole. Since it requires global efforts on all fronts, it is necessarily cross-cultural, cross-speciesistic, and cross-disciplinary, that is, geophilosophy is transversal. It attends especially to the importance of Sinism, which incorporates Confucianism, Daoism, and Chan/Zenb Buddhism, in constructing an ethico-aesthetic paradigm. Sinism is a species of relational ontology or philosophy of Interbeing which defines reality as social process, that is, in the cosmos everything is connected to everything else or nothing exists in isolation, that coincides with the “first law” of ecology. Not only is the aesthetic a discourse of the body, but also the body is our anchorage in the world. In Sinism, the aesthetic and the ethical come together in the embodied concept of harmony, which is the master keyboard, as it were, they are being played together: what is harmonious is simultaneously beautiful and ethical, which culminates in the cosmopolitan virtue of ren. Today we must walk tomorrow as well as yesterday: we steop backward in order to step forward. The Way (Dao) of Ecopiety is to be had in part by recycling the ancient wisdom of Sinism instead of abandoning it as old and foreign.
10. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Ana Isla Douglas A. Vakoch, editor. Feminist Ecocriticism: Environment, Women, and Literature
11. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 1
Tim Christion Myers Allen Thompson and Jeremy Bendik-Keymer, editors. Ethical Adaptation to Climate Change: Human Virtues of the Future
12. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Daniel L. Crescenzo Loose Integrity and Ecosystem Justice on Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach
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David Schlosberg argues that Nussbaum’s capabilities approach can include ecosystems as subjects of justice if we view integrity, rather than dignity, as the conceptual ground for being a subject of justice. I further specify Schlosberg’s concept of ecosystem integrity, arguing that it should be understood as loose integrity. An ecosystem has loose integrity if it retains its capacity to return, after disruption, to functioning as substantially the same kind of system it was before disruption. Finally, I argue that the opportunity for ecosystems to maintain loose integrity can become the object of an overlapping consensus.
13. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Molly Sturdevant Donald Crosby. The Thou of Nature: Religious Naturalism and Reverence for Sentient Life
14. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Ilan Safit Wang Jiuliang, director. Beijing Besieged by Waste (La Ji Wei Cheng)
15. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Mike Menser Ignasi Ribó. Habitat: The Ecopolitical Nation
16. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Roger Paden A Defense of the Picturesque
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The eighteenth century notion of the “picturesque” has been misunderstood by many contemporary environmental aestheticians. This has contributed both to amisunderstanding of the history of environmental aesthetics and, within the discipline, to a misunderstanding of English garden design. This essay contains a discussion of the term as it appears in environmental aesthetics literature and an examination of the history of the term as used in eighteenth-century garden design literature. This history is used to contest the account of the term as used by contemporary environmental aestheticians and to develop a philosophically more interesting interpretation of it.
17. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Elisa Aaltola Empathy, Intersubjectivity, and Animal Philosophy
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The aim of this paper is to investigate key works on empathy and intersubjectivity and to compare how they relate to non-human animals. It will be suggested that intersubjectivity forms a powerful objection to skepticism concerning the minds of other animals and lays the grounds for normatively loaded empathic responses. It will also be argued that the core of intersubjectivity takes place outside of propositional language, thus defying the linguocentric stance often adopted in relation to other animals. Although descriptions of non- or pre-lingual responses is challenging, the type of “attention” brought forward by Simone Weil is offered as one alternative way of understanding what it is to pay heed to animal others, and the work of the ethologist Barbara Smuts is brought forward asan example of such attention.
18. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Darrell P. Arnold Philip Cafaro and Eileen Crist, editors. Life on the Brink: Environmentalists Confront Overpopulation
19. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Ignasi Ribó Worlds and Words: Of Bats, Ticks, and Apes
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Three approximations to the understanding of nonhuman animals are discussed. Ethologists and philosophers of mind, guided by an objectifying model of cognition, have not enquired about the being-in-the-world of animals and their meaning. The continental tradition has been asking the right questions, but has not given adequate answers, as ontological discourse remains tied up with logocentrism. Kafka’s animal fictions are presented as an example of how the human logos can be attentive to the worlds of other animals and allow them to manifest themselves in their own being, an attitude defined as imaginary attentiveness.
20. Environmental Philosophy: Volume > 10 > Issue: 2
Michael Marder Alexandra Cook. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Botany: The Salutary Science